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Tayma Oasis Cultural Landscape (SAUDI ARABIA): 27.629722, 38.543889
Saudi Arabia – National Wildlife Research Center King Khalid: 24.670000, 46.690000
Saudi Arabia – National Herbarium and Genebank: 24.670000, 46.690000
Saudi Arabia – Madinat Yaubu Al-Sinaiyah Botanic Garden: 24.670000, 46.690000
Saudi Arabia – King Saud University Botanic Garden: 24.670000, 46.690000
Bir Hima Rock-art and Najran area Cultural Landscape (SAUDI ARABIA): 17.491667, 44.132222
Al-Qatif Oasis Cultural Landscape (SAUDI ARABIA): 26.556000, 49.996000
Al-Hasa Oasis Cultural Landscape (SAUDI ARABIA): 25.429444, 49.621944

Saudi Arabia is a country situated in the scope of Med-O-Med program, geographical and culturally. That is why and with the objective to use them as reference for the different research and catalogues created by the program, that we present this data for the country in different subjects:

Biodiversity conservation data


The varied biodiversity of Saudi Arabia stems from its central location between Africa and Eurasia, leading to a combination of elements from both regions. There are 2,250 flowering species in Saudi Arabia, 246 of which are considered endemic to the region. About 450 species (18%) are directly beneficial for human beings, 45 species (1.8%) are poisonous, and 334 species (13.4%) are used in popular medicine or are known to have medicinal uses.

About 2.7 million hectares of woodland remain in the mountains of Saudi Arabia, especially in remote, steep, inaccessible areas. The juniper (Juniper spp.) forests are one of the few dense forest habits of Saudi Arabia and are concentrated along a narrow strip about 7,600 kilometres long. These forests prosper at 2,000 – 3,000 metres, and are characterised by high diversity of species and biomass. Olives (Olea europaea L.) are starting to appear amongst the junipers on slopes at about 1,500 – 2,000 metres. In addition to mountain forests, there are woods in arid zones featuring acacias in the desert and mangroves along the coasts. The country’s main forest species are Juniperus procera, Olea europaea, Barbeya cleoides, Nuxia oppositifolia, N. congesta, Tarchonanthus comphoratus, Celtis africana, Breonadia salicina, Acacia origena, Teclea nobilis, Ficus vasta, Ficus ingens and Ficus sycomorus.

Some of the main threats to plant diversity are habitat destruction and fragmentation, excessive grazing, excessive hunting, changing intensity in modern farming, chemical pollution caused by improper use of pesticides, increasing recreational activities associated with green areas, the expansion of urban areas and exotic and invasive species. Factors limiting the expansion of forests include insufficient rainfall, the high cost of reforestation and a shortage of sufficiently-qualified forestry workers in Saudi Arabia.


In-situ conservation

To date there is documentation on 15 protected areas, covering almost 4% of the surface of all the large physiographical regions and including half the country’s biotopes, the main wetlands, marine and mountain habitats and providing protection for populations of endemic species, species at risk of extinction and in general for the main plant and animal species. Saudi Arabia has drawn up a National Plan for Protected Areas with the aim of covering about 10% of the country. Amongst the most significant of the protected areas are the Asir National Park, the country’s largest, with a total surface area of 450,000 ha and great biodiversity (with herbaceous plants, lichens, junipers, etc.), the Sa’ad National Park, a recreational park covering 300 ha with almost 40,000 trees of different species, and the Al Ahsa National Park, whose main function is to shield farming lands and urban districts from the encroaching sand.

Ex-situ conservation

Saudi Arabia gives priority to botanic gardens as a tool for conserving biodiversity ex-situ. It considers them of vital importance for conserving terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The main botanic garden in Saudi Arabia is at the King Saud University in Riyadh, which is run by the Department of Botany and Microbiology of Riyadh University.

The existing germplasm banks are insufficient according to the Saudi Arabian National Strategy for the Conservation of Biodiversity, but essential work is being done by the Germplasm Bank and National Herbarium of the Ministry of Agriculture and Water.

In addition, while searching for information for this study, data was found on the Madinat Yaubu Al-SInaiyah Botanic Garden and on the King Khalid National Wildlife Research Centre (KKWRC). However, according to the National Strategy for the Conservation of Biodiversity, more botanic gardens should be set up around the main towns in Saudi Arabia.

Centers of Plant diversity

Physical geography data

The country occupies 80% of the Arabian Peninsula. A large proportion of the frontiers with United Arab Emirates, Oman and Yemen is not clearly defined, so the exact size of the country is unknown. It is estimated at 1,969,000 km2, so is the tenth largest country in the world, covering 1.64% of the world’s land surface area and being 8% the surface area of Asia.

The climate is hot and dry. Half of the country is uninhabited. In most of Saudi Arabia, vegetation is scarce, with xerophytic plants and shrubs.

The south-western region has mountains reaching altitudes of 3,000 metres and is the greenest and coolest part of the country. The capital, Riyadh, has an average temperature of 42°C in July and 14°C in January, whereas Jeddah, on the west coast, has an average temperature of 31ºC in July and 23ºC in January.

The dominant biome in Saudi Arabia is desert. According to WWF, the country can be divided into six eco-regions:

  • PersianGulf desert and semi-desert on the east coast
  • Arabianpeninsula coastal desert alongthe southern half of the west coast
  • South-westArabian foothill savanna
  • South-westArabian high mountains
  • RedSea tropical desert and semi-desert along the north half of the westcoast
  • Desertand xerophylic mountains of Arabia and Sinai

This post is available in: English Español

Saudi Arabia is a country situated in the scope of Med-O-Med program, geographical and culturally. That is why and with the objective to use them as reference for the different research and catalogues created by the program, that we present this data for the country in different subjects: This post is available in: English Español