- Site: Hierapolis-Pamukkale Cultural Landscape
- Keywords: Turkey, Cultural Landscape, Hierapolis, Pamukkale, Cokelez Mountains, hidrotherapy, travertine terraces, semi-circular pools, ancient Theatre, Temple of Apollo, Sanctuary to Pluto, Plutonion, Nymphaeum, Roman Baths (the museum), Necropolis.
1. OFFICIAL CLASSIFICATIONS AND CATEGORIES
1.1 National and International Classification Lists
Hierapolis-Pamukkale is in the World Heritage List of Unesco since 1988, criteria: (iii)(iv)(vii), property : 1,077 ha and ref: 485. The site is also a National Park (“Pamukkale National Park”).
- World heritage list of UNESCO
- Protection Figures
1.2. Cultural Landscape Category/Tipology
Organically evolved landscapesRelict (or fossil) landscape
1.3. Description and Justification by Med-O-Med
Deriving from springs in a cliff almost 200 m high overlooking the plain, calcite-laden waters have created at Pamukkale (Cotton Palace) an unreal landscape, made up of mineral forests, petrified waterfalls and a series of terraced basins. At the end of the 2nd century B.C. the dynasty of the Attalids, the kings of Pergamon, established the thermal spa of Hierapolis. The ruins of the baths, temples and other Greek monuments can be seen at the site. The value of the site is recognized by UNESCO in the World Heritage List (1988). According to the UNESCO criteria (UNESCO Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, Article 1, 1972) and the natural and cultural heritage of the site, Med-O-Med has considered appropiated to propose “Hierapolis-Pamukkale” as a Cultural Lanscape (Organically evolved Landscape): -Natural Heritage Components: The Pamukkale National Park is the focal point for the natural values of the site, formed by its highest travertine terraces, with 20 m high cliffs and waterfalls, and situated along on the foothills of the Cokelez Mountains. The terrace is about 200 m above the Curuksu plain and extends some 6 km between the villages of Pamukkale and Karahayit. Semi-circular pools occur in a step-like arrangement down the upper third of the slope. Fresh deposits of calcium carbonate give the pools a dazzling white coating. The travertine deposits, Quaternary in age, are thought to originate from a fault in the contact zone between the Mesozoic crystalline rocks and the layers of the Neogen series. The springs form part of a complex hydraulic system extending 70 km to the north-west to Alasehir and west along the valley of the Menderes River. These canals take thermal water to nearby villages and agricultural areas, some over the years having accumulated travertine deposits up to 10 m in height. The oldest rocks in the area are crystalline marbles, quartzite and schists and are located in the northern parts of the park. Most of the rocks are of the Pliocene epoch. -Cultural Heritage Components: Hierapolis was an ancient Greco-Roman and Byzantine city located on hot springs in classical Phrygia in southwestern Anatolia. Its ruins are adjacent to modern Pamukkale in Turkey and currently comprise an archaeological museum designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The therapeutic virtues of the waters were exploited since the 2nd century BC at the various thermal installations which included immense hot basins and pools for swimming. Hydrotherapy was accompanied by religious practices, which were developed in relation to local cults. The Temple of Apollo was erected on a fault from which noxious vapours escaped. The theatre, which dates from the time of Severus, is decorated with an admirable frieze depicting a ritual procession and a sacrifice to the Ephesian Artemis. The necropolis affords a vast panorama of the funerary practices of the Graeco-Roman epoch. According to ancient tradition, Philip the Apostle converted it and was crucified there by Domitian around the year 87. Hieropolis remained one of the two metropolises of the Phrygia Pacatiana as well as being a bishopric. The group of Christian buildings are the cathedral, baptistry and churches. The most important monument is the martyrium of St Philip. At the top of a monumental stairway, the octagonal layout of the building is remarkable because of its ingenious spatial organization. The fortress, built on the cliff, testifies to its ultimate historic phase. The natural features of the site provide the setting that attracted the original Roman town of Hierapolis. They thus form an important backdrop for the cultural landscape that now dominates the area.
2. NAME / LOCATION / ACCESSIBILITY
- Current denomination Hierapolis, Pamukkale.
- Current denomination Hierapolis, Pamukkale.
- Original denomination Hierapolis, Pamukkale.
- Popular denomination Hierapolis, Pamukkale.
- Address: Denizli province, Phrygia region, Turkey.
- Geographical coordinates: Pamukkale: 37° 54' 57" N, 29° 6' 46" E Hierapolis: 37°55′30″N 29°07′33″E
- Area, boundaries and surroundings: Pamukkale, meaning "cotton castle" in Turkish, is a natural site in Denizli Province in southwestern Turkey. Hierapolis is located in the Büyük Menderes (the classical Meander) valley adjacent to the modern Turkey cities of Pamukkale and Denizli. It is located in Turkey's inner Aegean region, which has a temperate climate for most of the year. It was built on top of the white "castle" which is in total about 2,700 metres (8,860 ft) long, 600 m (1,970 ft) wide and 160 m (525 ft) high. It can be seen from the hills on the opposite side of the valley in the town of Denizli, 20 km away.
3. LEGAL ISSUES
- Owner: Turkish Government.
- Body responsible for the maintenance: Turkish Government.
- Legal protection: All the area described by UNESCO (Property : 1,077 ha ) is included in the Pamukkale National Park (1988).
- Public or private organizations working in the site: Hierapolis was first excavated by German Carl Humann in the late nineteenth century. He published his "Altertumer Von Hierapolis" in 1889. Additional excavations by an Italian team led by Paolo Verzone began in 1957. As recently as 1977, visitors to Hierapolis would have found the orchestra littered with architectural debris and the cavea reduced to the first thirty rows of seats. Italian teams have continued to excavated and restored the site. The Hierapolis Museum was built at the site of the Hierapolis Roman baths in 1970, before then artifacts were sent to the museums at Izmir and Istanbul. As of 1996, the excavation of the orchestra and skene were complete, and restoration of the podium was nearing completion. As of 2001, Dr. Daria de Bernardi Ferrero has been leading the Italian excavations. Also, in order to mitigate the environmental impacts, scientific studies were started in the area in 1993 by UKAM and the Ministry of Culture.
The history of Hierapolis followed the same course as many Hellenistic cities in Asia Minor. The Romans acquired full control of it in 129 BC and it prospered under its new rulers. It was a cosmopolitan city where Anatolians, Graeco-Macedonians, Romans and Jews intermingled. The hot springs which attracted throngs of people ‘taking the waters’ also served another purpose: scouring and dying wool. -Ancient Hieropolis: There are only a few historical facts known about the origin of the city. No traces of the presence of Hittites or Persians have been found. The Phrygians built a temple, probably in the first half of the 3rd century BC. This temple, originally used by the citizens of the nearby town of Laodicea, would later form the centre of Hierapolis. Hierapolis was founded as a thermal spa early in the 2nd century BC within the sphere of the Seleucid Empire. Antiochus the Great sent 2,000 Jewish families to Lydia and Phrygia from Babylon and Mesopotamia, later joined by more from Judea. The Jewish congregation grew in Hierapolis and has been estimated as high as 50,000 in 62 BC. The city was expanded with the booty from the 190 BC Battle of Magnesia where Antiochus the Great was defeated by the Roman ally Eumenes II. Following the Treaty of Apamea ending the Syrian War, Eumenes annexed much of Asia Minor, including Hierapolis. Hierapolis became a healing centre where doctors used the thermal springs as a treatment for their patients. The city began minting bronze coins in the 2nd century BC. These coins give the name Hieropolis. -Roman Hierapolis: In 133 BC, when Attalus III died, he bequeathed his kingdom to Rome. Hierapolis thus became part of the Roman province of Asia. In AD 17, during the rule of the emperor Tiberius, a major earthquake destroyed the city. Through the influence of the Christian apostle Paul, a church was founded here while he was at Ephesus. The Christian apostle Philip spent the last years of his life here. In the year 60, during the rule of Nero, an even more severe earthquake left the city completely in ruins. Afterwards, the city was rebuilt in the Roman style with imperial financial support. It was during this period that the city attained its present form. The theatre was built in 129 for a visit by the emperor Hadrian. It was renovated under Septimius Severus (193–211). When Caracalla visited the town in 215, he bestowed the much-coveted title of neocoros upon it, according the city certain privileges and the right of sanctuary. This was the golden age of Hierapolis. Thousands of people came to benefit from the medicinal properties of the hot springs. New building projects were started: two Roman baths, a gymnasium, several temples, a main street with a colonnade, and a fountain at the hot spring. Hierapolis became one of the most prominent cities in the Roman Empire in the fields of the arts, philosophy, and trade. The town grew to 100,000 inhabitants and became wealthy. During his campaign against the Sassanid Shapur II in 370, the emperor Valens made the last-ever imperial visit to the city. During the 4th century, the Christians filled Pluto’s Gate (a ploutonion) with stones, suggesting that Christianity had become the dominant religion and begun suppressing other faiths in the area. Originally a see of Phrygia Pacatiana, the Byzantine emperor Justinian raised the bishop of Hierapolis to the rank of metropolitan in 531. The Roman baths were transformed to a Christian basilica. During the Byzantine period, the city continued to flourish and also remained an important centre for Christianity. -Medieval Hierapolis: In the early 7th century, the town was devastated first by Persian armies and then by another destructive earthquake, from which it took a long time to recover. In the 12th century, the area came under the control of the Seljuk sultanate of Konya before falling to crusaders under Frederick Barbarossa and their Byzantine allies in 1190. About thirty years later, the town was abandoned before the Seljuks built a castle in the 13th century. The new settlement was abandoned in the late 14th century. In 1354, the great Thracian Earthquake toppled the remains of the ancient city. The ruins were slowly covered with a thick layer of limestone.
- Oldest initial date /building and inauguration date: Founded: early 2nd century BC
- Original and successive owners: Roman Republican to High Medieval.
- Dates of successive recycling to the original layout: See point 4.1.
- Historical and/or outstanding personalities involved: See point 4.1.
5. GENERAL DESCRIPTION
5.1. Natural heritage
- Heritage: Other
- Geography: High Mountain
- Site topography: Natural
- Geological and Geographical characteristics: The Pamukkale National Park is the focal point for the natural values of the site, formed by its highest travertine terraces, with 20 m high cliffs and waterfalls, and situated along on the foothills of the Cokelez Mountains. The terrace is about 200 m above the Curuksu plain and extends some 6 km between the villages of Pamukkale and Karahayit. Semi-circular pools occur in a step-like arrangement down the upper third of the slope. Fresh deposits of calcium carbonate give the pools a dazzling white coating. The travertine deposits, Quaternary in age, are thought to originate from a fault in the contact zone between the Mesozoic crystalline rocks and the layers of the Neogen series. The springs form part of a complex hydraulic system extending 70 km to the north-west to Alasehir and west along the valley of the Menderes River. These canals take thermal water to nearby villages and agricultural areas, some over the years having accumulated travertine deposits up to 10 m in height. The oldest rocks in the area are crystalline marbles, quartzite and schists and are located in the northern parts of the park. Most of the rocks are of the Pliocene epoch.
A vegetation map produced in 1969 showed land use, in descending order of area covered, as cultivated land, bare land subject to erosion, bare land urban areas and maquis. There are some 45 species of flowering plants.
Land uses and economical activities:Pamukkale is a tourist attraction. It is recognized as a World Heritage Site together with Hierapolis. Hierapolis-Pamukkale was made a World Heritage Site in 1988.
Agricultural issues or other traditional productions and their effect on the landscape:There are some agricultural areas in the surroundings.
Summary of Landscapes values and characteristics:
Hierapolis-Pamukkale was an ancient spa: the hot springs here have been used as a spa since the 2nd century BC. Under Hellenistic and Roman rule, it became a healing centre where doctors used the hot thermal springs as a treatment for their patients. Significant ancient structures that remain: – Theatre – Temple of Apollo – Sanctuary to Pluto – Shrine of the Nymphs – Necropolis And from the Christian period: – St. Philip Martyrium The designated area also includes the natural sight Pamukkale, located in the same town. Pamukkale consists of a landscape of white terraces with travertines (terraces of carbonate minerals left by the flowing water).
5.2. Cultural Heritage
A) Related to current constructions, buildings and art pieces in general
Architectonical elements /Sculptures:
See point 5.2.2.
Art pieces, artesany, furniture and other elements:
The Roman Bath, one of the biggest buildings of Hierapolis antique city, has been used as the site of the Hierapolis Archaeology Museum since 1984. In this museum, alongside the historical artifacts which were found in Hierapolis, there are some artifacts from Laodiceia, Colossae, Tripolis, Attuda and other towns of the Lycos (Çürüksu) valley. In addition to these, the museum has a large section devoted to artifacts found at Beycesultan Hüyük and which includes some of the most beautiful examples of Bronze Age craft. Artifacts which have come from the Caria, Pisidia and Lydia regions are also on display in this museum. The museum’s exhibition space consists of three closed areas of the Hierapolis Bath and open areas in the eastern side, which are known to have been used as the library and the gymnasium. The artifacts in the open exhibition space are mostly marble and stone. -Tombs and Statues Gallery: This room contains finds from the excavations in Hierepolis and Laodiceia, including sarcophagi, statues, gravestones, pedestals, pillars and inscriptions. Among these artifacts there are statues of Tyche, Dionysus, Pan, Asklepios, Isis, Demeter and Trion which, although executed by the Romans, were inspired by the Hellenistic tradition. The representations of local customs on family tombs are particularly interesting. The most beautiful examples of baked earth sarcophagi are specific to this area. One of the most valuable works of art in this room is the sarcophagus belonging to a certain Arhom, of the ‘Sidemare’ type. On it is an inscription to Maximilian, and it is the finest work to emerge from the ancient towns of Lahdi and Laodicia. -Small Artifacts Gallery: In this room, there are small findings from several civilizations of the last 4,000 years. These works, which are displayed in chronological order include works from many archaeological sites in and around Denizli. A special importance is given to the findings from Beycesultan Höyük. These discoveries are an example of an ancient civilization. These works, which were found in the excavation conducted by the British Institute of Archaeology include idols, baked earth bowls, libation cups, seals and other stone artifacts. In other parts of the room are displayed objects from the Frigan, Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine period such as glass cups, necklaces, gemstones (in the form of rings, bracelets, earrings and so on) and earthenware lamps. This room also contains an important sequence of ancient coins arranged in chronological order. The earliest of these coins were minted in the 6th century AD and the display proceeds through the Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Selçuk and Ottoman periods with coins of gold, silver and bronze. -Theater’s Ruins Gallery: In this room, decorative works from the theater of Hierapolis, most of which have been restored, are displayed. Some of the reliefs of the scenery building remain in site but parts of them have been replaced by copies. In the works that are found in the room there are reliefs devoted to the myth of Apollo and Artemis, the delights of Dionysos and the coronotion of the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus. There are depictions of the abduction of Persephone by Hades, Apollo, Leto, Artemis, and Hades and sculpted sphinxes. Sculpted relief reminiscent of Attalus and Eumenes are on display.
In the case of gardens: original and current style:It is not the case.
Man-made elements related to water management:
B) Related to ancient remains
- Archaeological components:
The Temple of Apollo was erected on a fault from which noxious vapours escaped. The theatre, which dates from the time of Severus, is decorated with an admirable frieze depicting a ritual procession and a sacrifice to the The necropolis affords a vast panorama of the funerary practices of the Graeco-Roman epoch. According to ancient tradition, Philip the Apostle converted it and was crucified there by Domitian around the year 87. Hieropolis remained one of the two metropolises of the Phrygia Pacatiana as well as being a bishopric. The group of Christian buildings are the cathedral, baptistry and churches. The most important monument is the martyrium of St Philip. At the top of a monumental stairway, the octagonal layout of the building is remarkable because of its ingenious spatial organization. The fortress, built on the cliff, testifies to its ultimate historic phase. – Hierapolis ancient city: The Hellenistic city was built on a grid with streets running parallel or perpendicular to the main thoroughfare. This main street ran from north to south close to a cliff with the travertine terraces. It was about 1,500 metres long and 13.5 metres wide and was bordered on both sides by an arcade. At both ends of the main street, there was a monumental gate flanked by square towers built of massive blocks of stone. The side streets were about 3 metres wide. Another gate, the Domitian Gate, was close to the northern city gate. This triumphal arch flanked by circular towers consists of three arches and was built by the proconsul Frontinius. The town was repeatedly rebuilt following major earthquakes and improved prior to various imperial visits to the healing springs. In addition, Septimius Severus had a number of new buildings constructed in Hierapolis in gratitude for his secretary Antipater, a native of Hierapolis who also tutored the emperor’s two sons. -Theatre: The first theatre was constructed to the northeast above the northern gate when the ancient city was destroyed by an earthquake in AD 17. After the earthquake of AD 60, a new theatre was constructed during the reign of the emperor Vespasian. This second theatre was hollowed out of the slope of the hill further to the east using the remains and the seats of the first. There were alterations during the reigns of Hadrian and Septimius Severus. There is an inscription in the theatre that relates to the emperor Hadrian. Septimius Severus is portrayed in a relief together with his wife Julia Domna, his two sons Caracalla and Geta, and the god Jupiter. In 352, the theatre underwent a thorough restoration and was adapted for water shows. There were four entrances to the theatre, each with six statues in niches flanked by marble columns. The auditorium consisted of stacked seating with a capacity of 15,000 and was bisected by a horizontal corridor. It featured an imperial box. The lower part originally had twenty rows and the upper part twenty five, but only thirty rows altogether have survived. The auditorium is segmented into nine aisles by means of eight vertical passageways with steps. The proscenium consisted of two stories with ornately decorated niches to the sides. Several statues, reliefs (including depictions of Apollo, Dionysus, and Diana), and decorative elements have been excavated by the Italian archaeological team and can be seen in the local museum. The theatre is now under restoration. Many reliefs and statues depicting mythological figures have been excavated from the site. -Temple of Apollo A temple was raised to Apollo Lairbenos, the town’s principal god during the Hellenistic period. This Apollo was linked to the ancient Anatolian sun god Lairbenos and the god of oracles Kareios. The site also included temples or shrines to Cybele, Artemis, Pluto, and Poseidon. Now only the foundations of the Hellenistic temple remain. The temple stood within a peribolos (15 by 20 metres in Doric style. As the back of the temple was built against the hill, the peribolos was surrounded on three sides by marble Doric order columns. The new temple was reconstructed in the 3rd century in Roman fashion, recycling the stone blocks from the older temple. The reconstruction had a smaller area and now only its marble floor remains. The temple of Apollo was deliberately been built over an active fault. Temples dedicated to Apollo were often built over geologically-active sites, including his most famous, the temple at Delphi. When the Christian faith was granted official primacy in the 4th century, this temple underwent a number of desecrations. Part of the peribolos was also dismantled to make room for a large Nympheum. -Plutonium Next to this temple and within the sacred area is the oldest local sanctuary, Pluto’s Gate, a shrine to Pluto. It is a small cave just large enough for one person to enter through a fenced entrance, beyond which stairs go down and from which emerges suffocating carbon dioxide gas caused by subterranean geologic activity. Behind the 3 square metres roofed chamber is a deep cleft in the rock, through which fast-flowing hot water passes while releasing a sharp-smelling gas. During the early years of the town, castrated priests of Cybele descended into the plutonium, crawling over the floor to pockets of oxygen or holding their breath. Carbon dioxide is heavier than air and so tends to settle in hollows. The priests would then come up to show that they were miraculously immune to the gas and infused with divine protection. An enclosed area of 2,000 square metres stood in front of the entrance. It was covered by a thick layer of suffocating gas, killing anyone who dared to enter it. The priests sold birds and other animals to the visitors, so that they could try out how deadly this enclosed area was. Visitors could (for a fee) ask questions of Pluto’s oracle. This provided a considerable source of income for the temple. The entrance to the plutonium was walled off during the Christian times and has just been recently unearthed. -The Nymphaeum: The Nymphaeum is located inside the sacred area in front of the Apollo temple. It dates from the 2nd century AD. It was a shrine of the nymphs, a monumental fountain distributing water to the houses of the city via an ingenious network of pipes. The Nymphaeum was repaired in the 5th century during the Byzantine era. A retaining wall was built with elements from the peribolos of the Apollonian temple. By doing so, the early Christians cut off the view of the pagan temple. The Byzantine gate was constructed in the 6th century. Now only the back wall and the two side walls remain. The walls and the niches in the walls were decorated with statues. The Italian archaeological team has excavated two statues of priestesses, which now on display at the local museum. The Nymphaeum has a U-shaped plan and sits on the continuation of the main colonnaded road. The stone pavement columns and other architectural remains mark a great part of the colonnaded road which ran through in a north-south direction. It has statues and shops around it, underneath which passed canals. The road had a base covered with stone blocks, now under the pool of the Private Administration. There are two huge doors which were constructed at the end of the 1st century AD and left outside the city walls. -Necropolis: Following the main colonnaded road and passing the outer baths (thermae extra muros), an extensive necropolis extends for over two kilometers on either side of the old road to Phrygian Tripolis and Sardis. The necropolis extends from the northern to the eastern and southern sections of the old city. Most of the tombs have been excavated. This necropolis is one of the best preserved in Turkey. Most of about the 1,200 tombs were constructed with local varieties of limestone. Most tombs date from the late Hellenic period, but there are also a considerable number from the Roman and early Christian periods. People who came for medical treatment to Hierapolis in ancient times and the native people of the city buried their dead in tombs of several types according to their traditions and socio-economic status. The tombs and funeral monuments can be divided into four types: Simple graves for common people Sarcophagi, some raised on a substructure and others hollowed out from the rock. Many are covered with a double-pitched roof. Most are constructed in marble and are decorated with reliefs and epitaphs showing the names and professions of the deceased and extolling their good deeds. These epitaphs have revealed much about the population. Most, however, have been plundered over the years. Circular tumuli, sometimes hard to discern. These mounds each have a narrow passageway leading to a vaulted chamber inside. Larger family graves, sometimes monumental and resembling small temples. -Martyrium: The St. Philip Martyrium stands on top of the hill outside the northeastern section of the city walls. It dates from the 5th century. It was said that Philip was buried in the center of the building and, though his tomb has recently been unearthed, the exact location has not yet been verified. The Martyrium burned down at the end of the 5th or early 6th century, as attested by fire marks on the columns. Philip is said to have been martyred in Hierapolis by being crucified upside-down or by being hung upside down by his ankles from a tree. The martyrium had a special design, probably executed by an architect of a Byzantine emperor. It has a central octagonal structure with a diameter of 20 metres under a wooden dome which is covered with lead. This is surrounded with eight rectangular rooms, each accessible via three arches. Four were used as entrances to the church, the other four as chapels. The space between the eight rooms was filled with heptagonal chapels with a triangular apse. The dome above the apse was decorated with mosaics. The whole structure was surrounded by an arcade with marble columns. All the walls were covered with marble panels.
- Traces in the environment of human activity: Archaeological remains.
C) Related to intangible, social and spiritual values
- Languages and dialects: Turkish
- Lifestyle, believing, cults, traditional rites: Hydrotherapy was accompanied by religious practices, which were developed in relation to local cults. There are also some believing related to myths in this area, as the Pamukkale Legend: The story of the Woodcutter's daughter has been told for ages. Many years ago there was a poor woodcutter family who were living on the slopes of Çökelez Mountain. They had a daughter who was so ugly that the mothers who had sons turned away if they saw her. She didn't care so much about her poverty, but her ugliness made her very upset. One day she fell off the top of the hill into a cavity. She had fallen into the travertine pool that was full of thermal water and mud. She lied in the thermal water unconscious for a long time. During that time the water made her very beautiful. The son of the Denizli Governor saw this beautiful girl lying hurt in the water. He decided to take her to his house by horse. He loved her and they got married. Women began to come to the hot spring to become more beautiful after that time.
Condition: environmental/ cultural heritage degradation:Tourism is and has been a major industry. People have bathed in its pools for thousands of years. As recently as the mid-20th century, hotels were built over the ruins of Hierapolis, causing considerable damage. An approach road was built from the valley over the terraces, and motor bikes were allowed to go up and down the slopes. When the area was declared a World Heritage Site, the hotels were demolished and the road removed and replaced with artificial pools. Wearing shoes in the water is prohibited to protect the deposits.
Perspectives/Views/ Points of interest/Setting:
– Pamukkale pools. – Theatre. – Temple of Apollo. – The Roman Baths. – Sanctuary to Pluto. – Shrine of the Nymphs. – Necropolis.
Authenticity:Deriving from springs in a cliff almost 200 m high overlooking the plain, calcite-laden waters have created at Pamukkale (Cotton Palace) an unreal landscape, made up of mineral forests, petrified waterfalls and a series of terraced basins. At the end of the 2nd century B.C. the dynasty of the Attalids, the kings of Pergamon, established the thermal spa of Hierapolis. The ruins of the baths, temples and other Greek monuments can be seen at the site.
Universality:This site is exceptional by vurtue of its superlative natural phenomena - warm, heavily mineralized water flowing from springs creating pools and terraces which are visually stunning, and also because of its cultural heritage associated to the ancient Hierapolis. Med-O-Med describes the Universality of "Cappadocia Cultural Landscape" according to the UNESCO criteria (iii, iv, vii): iii) Hierapolis bears a unique testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which has disappeared, since Roman Republican to High Medieval. iv) The Christian monuments of Hierapolis constitute an outstanding example of an early Christian architectural complex. vii) Pamukkale contains superlative natural phenomena and areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance.
Historical and graphical data (drawings, paintings, engravings, photographs, literary items…):
Hierapolis-Pamukkale Cultural Landscape is one of all of the cultural landscapes of Turkey which are included in The Cultural Landscape inventory runned by Med-O-Med.
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Compiler Data: Sara Martínez Frías.