Trara Massif and Nedroma ancient remains, ALGERIA
- Keywords: Algeria Cultural Landscapes, Trara, Nedroma, kharidjite Kasbah, Honaine, Rachgoun Island, Sidna Youcha, phoenician remains, Sidi Bou Ali Mosque, Ben Aoufine Mosque, Abd al-Mu'min caliph, Almohad, Almoravid Kingdom
1. OFFICIAL CLASSIFICATIONS AND CATEGORIES
1.1 National and International Classification Lists
Trara Massif and Nedroma ancient remains Cultural Landscape is mentioned in the “Tentative List of UNESCO” (Nedroma et les Trara) with date of submission: 30/12/2002, criteria: (ii)(iii)(iv)(v), category: cultural, and themes: cultural landscapes
1.2. Cultural Landscape Category/Tipology
Organically evolved landscapesRelict (or fossil) landscape
Associative cultural landscape1
1.3. Description and Justification by Med-O-Med
Nedroma is a city in Tlemcen Province, located at 400-500 m above sea level, in the Trara Massif, Algeria. Once the capital of Trara, the city of Nedroma was built beside djebel Filaoussène in 1150 on top of the ruins of an ancient berber city. The site is classify in category Cultural in the World Heritage List of UNESCO, but Med-O-Med has considered appropiate to give another step considering this site as a Cultural Landscape taking into account its natural and cultural heritage, as an associative landscape, mainly because of the historial and religious significance linked to Trara mountains, including Nedroma ancient remains. (UNESCO Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, Article 1, 1972, Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention, 2008): -Its Natural heritage components: Nedroma is inseparable from its environmental context: the Trara Massif, a beatiful rural environment plenty of dechras, olive groves and gardens that modifies the landcape in function of human-being interest. -Its Cultural heritage components: This site is chosen as a Cultural Landscape mainly because of its intangible values, its historical, social and religious significance. This city has a great architectonical and religious dignity comparable to the main muslim cities in Algeria: it has a big Almoad Mosque, Sidi Bou Ali, and the Ben Aoufine Mosque with its multiple domes. It is also famous because of all the koubbas where repose mediterranean saints. Actually Trara Massif is a breeding ground of saints, pretigious hermits and reformers of Algeria. Historically, this massif is considered as the Almoads cradle: Abd al-Mu’min, the Almohad caliph who led the conquest of Almoravid Kingdom, was a native of Trara mountains. There are also historical remains of high value in the site: the ancient village of kharidjite and its Kasbah, Honaine, Rachgoun Island (both with phoenician remains), and Sidna Youcha.
2. NAME / LOCATION / ACCESSIBILITY
- Current denomination Trara, Nedroma.
- Current denomination Trara, Nedroma.
- Original denomination Trara, Nedroma (Arabic: ندرومة).
- Popular denomination Trara, Nedroma (Arabic: ندرومة).
- Address: Nedroma is a city in Tlemcen Province, in Central Trara, Algeria.
- Geographical coordinates: Altitude: 1 136 m, Djebel Fellaoucene.
- Area, boundaries and surroundings: Trara massif comprises eighteen municipalities in ther north of the provinces of Tlemcen and two in the province of Aïn Témouchent, but it is not eassy to limit the Trara mountains. The municipalities are in three geographical zones: Western Trara: Marsa Ben M'Hidi, MSirda Fouaga et Souk Tlata, Central Trara: Ghazaouet, Souahlia, Tienet, Dar Yaghmouracene, Nedroma, Djebala and Ain Kebira, Eastern Trara: Fellaoucene, Honaine, Beni Khaled, Beni Ouarsous et Aïn Fetah, and the two municipalities of Aïn Témouchent : Oulhaça El Gheraba and Sidi Ouriache.
3. LEGAL ISSUES
- Owner: Algerian Government
- Legal protection: About ten rare endemics taxa has been proposed to be involved in conservation measures including creation of a natural reserve.
There are phoenicia remains that show the presence of that civilization un the region. Appart from that, Trara is considered as the Almoads cradle.
- Historical and/or outstanding personalities involved: Abd al-Mu'min was the Almohad caliph who led the conquest of Almoravid Kingdom. He was a native of Trara mountains.
5. GENERAL DESCRIPTION
5.1. Natural heritage
- Heritage: Rural
- Geography: High Mountain
- Site topography: Natural
- Climate and environmental conditions: No details.
- Geological and Geographical characteristics: Trara Massif is a mountain range that belongs to the Western Atlas Tellien. It represents a block with difficult access, with the Mediterranean Sea to the North, Tafna Walley to the East, Mouilah to the South and Kiss in the Moroccan border. This area composes a geographical entity well identified.
Trara mounts is important clump of oranian coast (North-western Algerian). It provides a particularly favorable conditions for development of a rich luxurious vegetation with endemic taxa and/or rare. The main species are pines and cypress. The analysis of the forest vascular flora in Trara has revealed the existence of 558 taxa which belong to 87 families and 306 genera. An important endemics number has recorded: 37 algero-moroccan, 41 ibero-algero-moroccan, 17 are endemic in North Africa (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia) and 15 are endemic in Iberian peninsula and North Africa. About ten rare endemics taxa has been proposed to be involved in conservation measures including creation of a natural reserve.
Land uses and economical activities:In XI century Nedroma was an important agricultural and comercial center of Algeria, becoming a textil center in XVI century. Nowadays the main economical activities of the region are fishery and port activities (specially in the coastal villages of Marsa Ben M’Hidi, Ghazaouet and Honaine).
Agricultural issues or other traditional productions and their effect on the landscape:There are dechras and olive groves in Trara.
Summary of Landscapes values and characteristics:
Trara Massif is a beatiful rural environment plenty of dechras, olive groves and gardens that modifies the landcape in function of human-being interest. Threre are, in the area, archaeological sites that must be conserved and visited, as, for example, Honaine, Rachgoun Island (both with phoenician remains) and Sidna Youcha. Nedroma city, its monuments and ancient remains are also places of special interest.
5.2. Cultural Heritage
A) Related to current constructions, buildings and art pieces in general
Architectonical elements /Sculptures:
This city has a great architectonical and religious dignity comparable to the main muslim cities in Algeria: it has a big Almoad Mosque, Sidi Bou Ali, and the Ben Aoufine Mosque with its multiple domes. It is also famous because of all the koubbas where repose mediterranean saints. There are also interestings its colorful houses and sinouosus streets and passages.
Art pieces, artesany, furniture and other elements:
Nowadays still survives the handicraft activities and the artesany.
In the case of gardens: original and current style:It is not the case.
B) Related to ancient remains
- Archaeological components:
The archaeological remains of the area are mainly related to phoenician civilization: -Honaine, 30 km SE, was the phoenician Tlemcen port at XIII century, main point in the trace route with the ancient Sudan. There are remains of the ancient village of kharidjite and its Kasbah. -Sidna Youcha site, 12 km N. -Rachgoun Island and its phoenician remains, dated on VI BC. There are also remains of the ancient village of kharidjite and its Kasbah, in Nedroma.
- Historical routes:
Nedroma, once capital of Trara, was the port of Tlemcen, forming part of the trade route with the ancient Sedan.
- Traces in the environment of human activity: The archaeological sites, and the agricultural crops.
C) Related to intangible, social and spiritual values
- Population, ethnic groups: Berber In medieval times, population from these mountain made a Confederation called Trara.
- Languages and dialects: Berber, Arabic
Perspectives/Views/ Points of interest/Setting:
-Trara Massif. -Nedroma ancient remains, its monuments and buildings. -Honaine, Sidna Youcha, Rachgoun Island.
Authenticity:Trara Massif is considered as the Almoads cradle. Also there are archaelogical remains dating from the phoenicia period, and from the islamic civilization.
Universality:Med-O-Med subscribes to UNESCO criteria (Tentative List (ii)(iii)(iv)(v)) for Trara Massif and Nedroma ancient remains Cultural Landscape, adding the criteria vi) and x): ii) Trara exhibits an important interchange of human values, over a span of time as far it is the cradle of ALmoad culture and the place where a lot of religious personalities are natives. iii) The site bears an exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared, It can be observed in the ancient remains of Nedroma (Almoad civilization) and all the phoenicia sites. iv) Nedroma mosques are an outstanding example of a type of building which illustrates a significant stage in human history (Almoravid period),, also the architecnocical style of the houses and streets of the city are representative from the Islamic culture. v) The surroundings of the villages comprised inTrara are examples of a traditional land-use, which is representative of the berber culture. vi) The territory is associated with living traditions with andalusian influences (music, for xample). x) In Trara there are rare and threatened species that must be conserved.
Values linked to the Islamic culture and civilisation:-Trara Massif is connected to the origins of the Almoad culture, and is a cradle of many spiritual and islamic religious people. -The architecture of Nedroma, its islamic mosques. -Nedroma ancient remains, the ancient village of kharidjite and its Kasbah, and the koubbas where repose mediterranean saints.
Historical and graphical data (drawings, paintings, engravings, photographs, literary items…):
Trara Massif and Nedroma ancient remains Cultural Landscape is one of all of the cultural landscapes of Algeria which are included in The Cultural Landscape inventory runned by Med-O-Med.
http://riuma.uma.es/xmlui/handle/10630/4015 http://www.worldheritagesite.org/sites/t1774.html http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/1774/ -Medjahdi, B. (2009), La flore vasculaire des Monts des Trara (Nord Ouest Algérien). Acta Botánica Malacitana, Nº 34, pg 15. Universidad de Málaga, Servicio de Publicaciones. -UNESCO. (2001). Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage. World Heritage Committee. 25 session. Helsinki, Finland. -UNESCO. (2002). Cultural Landscapes: the Challenges of Conservation. Associated Workshops, World Heritage. Ferrara , Italy.
Compiler Data: Sara Martínez Frías.