• Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Cultural Landscape, Hima, traditional system of resource tenure, Hima al-Fawqa’, Hima al-Azahirah, Hima Al Humayd, Hima Quraysh, Jabal Ral, Hima al-Ghada, Jabal Aja’ biosphere reserve.

1. OFFICIAL CLASSIFICATIONS AND CATEGORIES

1.1 National and International Classification Lists

The Arabic word “hima” literally means “a protected place” or “protected area.” In Saudi Arabia’s revised protected area system plan, six to seven traditional himas are proposed for recognition as community conserved areas. See point 1.3. for more details. The importance of the hima’s system is recorded in “Al-Hima: A way of life” (Kilani, Hala, Assaad Serhal, Othman Llewlyn, IUCN West Asia regional Office, Amman Jordan – SPNL Beirut, Lebanon, 2007).

  • Protection Figures
  • Others

1.2. Cultural Landscape Category/Tipology

Organically evolved landscapes
Relict (or fossil) landscape

1.3. Description and Justification by Med-O-Med

Description

The hima is a traditional system of resource tenure that has been practiced for more than 1400 years in the Arabian Peninsula. It predates Islam, not necessarily in its existing form or after the introduction of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula. In any case, the hima is the most widespread and longstanding indigenous / traditional conservation institution in the Middle East, and perhaps on Earth. This interaction between human being and nature constitutes an excellent example of Cultural Landscape (Continuing Landscape), so Med-O-Med has considered appropiated to include a file that comprises all the himas of Saudi Arabia. The Arabian Peninsula is the birthplace of the hima and the region where the hima has been most widespread. While some himas were established and managed directly by central governments for their cavalries or for other purposes, most of them were established and managed by local communities but recognized by the central governments. Most functioned as grazing reserves for restricted use by a village community, clan or tribe, which were set aside to allow regeneration as part of a grazing management strategy. In many cases, they provided sedentary agriculturalists with pastures that were insured against overexploitation by nomadic herders. In the 1960’s it was estimated that there were about 3,000 himas in Saudi Arabia. Nearly every village in the southwestern mountains of the country was associated with one or more himas. Other himas were in the northern and central regions. They varied from 10 to well over 1,000 hectares. Traditional himas made up a vast area of land under conservation and sustainable use, and, on the whole, they became the best-managed rangelands in the Arabian Peninsula. In Saudi Arabia’s revised protected area system plan, six to seven traditional himas are proposed for recognition as community conserved areas: -Hima al-Fawqa’ is a small hima of 1.5 sq km., located to the east of Baljurashi, in the ‘Asir Region. In contrast to the surrounding land, it is characterized by a remarkably dense plant cover of 47.2%, and a standing crop biomass 353.7g/sq. m. Forage was traditionally harvested by hand in times of drought, The women would cut fodder in designated portions on a rotational basis. Camels are allowed to graze in the hima and beehives are placed at the hima’s edge. According to the shaykh who manages the hima, local people in need are eligible to use it without regard to lineage. -Hima al-Azahirah, 7 sq km. in area, is situated east of Baljurashi, in Al-Bahah Region, and covers an important watershed in the headwaters of Wadi Ranyah. It is characterized by grassland with tall trees in the lower reaches. Its stone boundary wall was built in the 1980’s by 600 local volunteers, every Thursday over three years – an enormous investment of time and effort in conservation. The hima is patrolled on a voluntary basis, but the access track is in a poor state of repair, while this serves to protect the site by keeping it relatively inaccessible, it also makes the hima hard to monitor. -Hima Al Humayd, 5.3 sq km. in area, is likewise to the east of Baljurashi, in Al-Bahah Region, and is characterized by densely vegetated brushy hills and wooded valleys. It is used for pasturing camels and donkeys, sheep and goats are excluded. The stone boundary wall was built around 1980, although the hima is older. It appears well situated for nature-based recreation and ecotourism. -Hima Quraysh is 15 sq km. in area, and lies west of At-Ta’if, in the Makkah Region. It is densely vegetated with grasses and small shrubs, scattered acacias, olives, and junipers. The hima is managed by four local shaykhs, no domestic livestock are pastured except cattle, which are still used to plow small fields. It is used to some extent for honey production, and is well situated for nature-based recreation and ecotourism, it may also qualify as an Important Bird Area. -Jabal Ral, 69 sq km. in area, is a granite mountain located southeast of Al-Wajh, in the Tabuk Region. For over 200 years the Bili tribe has managed it as a reserve for ibex. No grazing of domestic livestock is permitted, the local community has fenced off the wadi that provides access to the mountain. As a result the vegetation is in excellent condition, in contrast to the surrounding plains. It is a strategic seedbank from which plants may disperse to rehabilitate the surrounding rangelands. While it clearly qualifies as a hima, it is unclear whether the local community conceives of it as such. -Hima al-Ghada was traditionally managed by the people of ‘Unayzah to conserve the Haloxylon persicum shrublands that dominate the local sand dunes and help to stabilize them. The district government of ‘Unayzah now manages the area in cooperation with the local communities, and it is proposed that this arrangement be formalized as a co-managed protected area. -One new proposed protected area, the Jabal Aja’ biosphere reserve, has been put forward as a pilot protected area embodying the hima concept, and has been recognized in the World Wide Fund for Nature WWF and the Alliance of Religions and Conservation (ARC) Sacred Gifts for a Living Planet programme. This 2200 sq. km. area is the largest mountain massif in the interior of the Arabian Peninsula. A relative cool and moist Pleistocene refuge with ephemeral freshwater wetlands, it harbors relict plant and animal species that have disappeared from most parts of Arabia, and it constitutes a natural gene bank. With over 500 species of plants and vertebrate animals, it represents the greatest concentration of biodiversity in the interior of the Arabian Peninsula. It is an Important Plant Area and an important Bird Area, and with its spectacular scenery, it is well suited for environmental education, environmental recreation, and eco-tourism. A consultative framework is envisaged whereby the main stakeholders from the public and private sectors, including owners of the palm groves and wells and the livestock grazed in it, as well as representatives of the local communities, will participate in the planning and management of the hima.

2. NAME / LOCATION / ACCESSIBILITY

  • Current denomination Hima.
  • Current denomination Hima.
  • Original denomination Hima.
  • Popular denomination Hima.
  • Address: See point 1.3.
  • Area, boundaries and surroundings: See point 1.3.
  • Events:

    As a result of all of these activities, an international meeting entitled “Conservation for Poverty Reduction, Traditional Approaches in West Asia: Hima Revival and Evolution through the 21st Century,” was organized in March, 2007 in Lebanon by a partnership gathering IUCN, BirdLife, the Lebanese Ministry of Environment, SPNL, SDC, the Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature and Hanns Seidel Foundation. The meeting was hosted in Kfarzabad to bring more economic gain to a hima community. This strategy proved effective as it also helped raise the profile of Kfarzabad and its conservation efforts, which gave this community a sense of pride. Some fifty participants, who came from Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Qatar, Egypt, Syria, Oman, Jordan, Bahrain, Lebanon and Europe, agreed on a road map towards a more equitable conservation for poverty reduction using traditional approaches in West Asia and North Africa.

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Tayma Oasis Cultural Landscape (SAUDI ARABIA)

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3. LEGAL ISSUES

Property regime
  • Public
  • Owner: Traditional himas are managed by and for a particular village, clan or tribe.
  • Body responsible for the maintenance: Traditional himas are managed by and for a particular village, clan or tribe.
  • Legal protection: In contrast with governmental himas, traditional himas were governed according to customary management practices. Most were managed by and for a particular village, clan or tribe. Local communities, whether tribal or not, governed land use through consensus rather than prescribed legislative or institutional control. They had well-established hierarchal governance systems led by the shaykh or chieftain, which ensured representation of kin-groups through commissions, committees and councils. This allowed proper environmental management as each group held well-defined responsibilities for rainwater runoff, grazing, etc.- The customary management of traditional himas has proven highly adaptive to the characteristics of the land and the needs of the local people. Researchers working in Saudi Arabia have recorded the following types of traditional himas: 1. Grazing is prohibited, but grass is harvested by hand at designated times and places during years of drought, the cut fodder is taken outside the hima to feed the livestock. (Typically, the tribal council specifies the number of people from each family allowed to do the cutting, and specifies the trails to be used in order to prevent erosion of the soil). 2. Protected woodlands within which the cutting of trees (e.g. Juniperus procera, Acacia spp., Haloxylon persicum) or their branches is either prohibited or regulated, the cutting of trees is generally not allowed except for great emergencies or acute needs. 3. Managed rangelands within which a) grazing and cutting of grass are permitted on a seasonal basis to allow natural regeneration, after the grasses and other plants have grown out, flowered and borne fruit, b) in which grazing is permitted year-round but is restricted to specified kinds and numbers of livestock such as milk cattle or draft animals, or c) in which a limited number of livestock may be grazed for a specified time during periods of drought. 4. Reserves for bee-keeping, within which grazing is prohibited seasonally or is excluded altogether (seasonal reserves are commonly closed for five months of the year including the spring months, grazing being allowed only after the flowering season). In Saudi Arabia’s revised protected area system plan, one traditional hima is proposed for recognition as a co-managed protected area. Hima al-Ghada was traditionally managed by the people of ‘Unayzah to conserve the Haloxylon persicum shrublands that dominate the local sand dunes and help to stabilize them. The district government of ‘Unayzah now manages the area in cooperation with the local communities, and it is proposed that this arrangement be formalized as a co-managed protected area. One new proposed protected area, the Jabal Aja’ biosphere reserve, has been put forward as a pilot protected area embodying the hima concept, and has been recognized in the World Wide Fund for Nature WWF and the Alliance of Religions and Conservation (ARC) Sacred Gifts for a Living Planet programme. This 2200 sq. km. area is the largest mountain massif in the interior of the Arabian Peninsula. A relative cool and moist Pleistocene refuge with ephemeral freshwater wetlands, it harbors relict plant and animal species that have disappeared from most parts of Arabia, and it constitutes a natural gene bank. With over 500 species of plants and vertebrate animals, it represents the greatest concentration of biodiversity in the interior of the Arabian Peninsula. It is an Important Plant Area and an Important Bird Area, and with its spectacular scenery, it is well suited for environmental education, environmental recreation, and eco-tourism. A consultative framework is envisaged whereby the main stakeholders from the public and private sectors, including owners of the palm groves and wells and the livestock grazed in it, as well as representatives of the local communities, will participate in the planning and management of the hima.
  • Public or private organizations working in the site: In practice, the governing authorities do not generally interfere in the management of traditional himas so long as disputes concerning them do not arise, or are settled amicably. Where disputes have been intractable, however, the response has often been to abolish the hima in question. Moreover, the sanctions that once kept violators at bay no longer have legal force. A hima’s continuity under these conditions depends largely on the moral force of the shaykhs who manage it and the social conscience of the local community. If expanding populations and increasing demands on natural resources have put pressure on himas, they have also increased the need for them. Most of the few himas that are still being managed actively are regarded as an essential source of fodder, and are especially important in years of drought. Some are retained as an insurance against poor seasons, when designated portions may be cut on a rotational basis under the supervision of the village shaykh. In the early 1960s, Omar Draz, a Syrian advisor to the Food and Agriculture Organization, worked in Saudi Arabia and observed the hima system. Impressed with the system and aware of its potential, he actively promoted the restoration of tribal control of grazing both in Saudi Arabia and in Syria upon his return. Consequently, in 1967 a new regulation in Syria was developed to expand grazing through cooperatives identified according to geographic distribution instead of tribal name. The boundaries of cooperative himas were announced in a ministerial decree. However, the initiative, which lasted until almost 1974, failed as a result of political changes that reoriented the program towards water provision and other projects.

4. HISTORY

History of the Hima: It is unclear to what extent, if any, the hima served as an instrument of conservation in pre-Islamic times. The ruler, individual or group who owned the hima would declare access to it forbidden. Ash-Shafi‘i, one of Islam’s main theologists, reported that when a nomadic tribe came into a new area, it had been customary for the tribal leader to ascend an eminence and make his dog bark, and that all the land as far as the sound could be heard would be reserved for his exclusive use, as his hima. In the lands outside the hima he would graze his herds along with those of his people, whom he would exclude from the hima, within it he would graze his weaker animals and those of anyone else whom he chose to offer the privilege of sharing it with him. The institution was at times regarded as a tool of oppression, as powerful nomadic lords would monopolize grazing and watering rights to themselves. The prophet Muhammad transformed the hima, laying down the rules by which it came to be one of the essential instruments of conservation in Islamic law. In declaring that “There shall be no hima except for God and His Messenger” he abolished the pre-Islamic practice of making private reserves for the exclusive use of powerful individuals, and ruled that a hima could be established only for the public welfare. He established the hima of an-Naqi‘, to the south of Al-Madinah, for the cavalry. He also made a hima surrounding the Haram of Al-Madinah, in which he instituted a kind of zonation, forbidding hunting within a radius of four miles and the destruction of trees and shrubs within twelve. The hima thus became a symbol of social equity, redress, justice and an instrument of environmental conservation. The early caliphs established additional himas for the cavalry, the camels allocated for charity, and the livestock of the poor. Their concern for the needy is eloquently expressed in ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab’s (one of the first caliphs) instructions to the manager of Hima ar-Rabadhah: “Take care, O Hunayy! Lower your wing over the people! Beware the prayer of the oppressed for it will be answered. Let enter those who depend on their camels and sheep, and turn away the livestock of Ibn ‘Awf and Ibn ‘Affan (both companions of the Prophet), for they, if their livestock should perish, will fall back on their palms and fields, whereas the needy one, if his livestock perish, will come to me crying ‘O Commander of the Faithful…!’ It is easier for me to provide them with pasture than to spend on them gold or silver. Indeed it is their land, for which they fought in the time of ignorance and upon which they embraced Islam.” In Islamic law, to be legally valid a hima has to meet four conditions, derived from the rulings of the prophet Muhammad and the early caliphs: 1. It should be constituted by the “imam” – the legitimate governing authority, 2. it should be established in the Way of God, for purposes pertaining to the publicwelfare, 3. it should not cause undue hardship to the local people – it should not deprive them of resources that are indispensable to their subsistence, and 4. it should realize greater actual benefits to society than detriments. This accords closely with current thinking on equity in the planning and management of protected areas. Himas continued to exist both near settlements and in rural nomadic areas throughout the Middle Ages. They varied in size from a few hectares to hundreds of square kilometers. Tribes were delegated authority by the governing authorities to be the custodians of their himas and to control them on behalf of the central government. For centuries, local inhabitants of the rural and nomadic lands successfully established environmental planning and management strategies that balanced the growth of settlements and the use of natural resources according to Islamic law and tribal self-government. Local communities continued to manage the himas through the first half of the twentieth century. This was the case in the Ottoman dominions, which at various times included what is now Jordan, Syria, and parts of Yemen and Saudi Arabia. It served both cultural and spiritual ends to pursue sound environmental management of livelihood resources.

5. GENERAL DESCRIPTION

5.1. Natural heritage

  • Heritage: Rural
  • Geography: High Mountain
  • Site topography: Natural
Land uses and economical activities:
Agriculture. Shepherding.
Agricultural issues or other traditional productions and their effect on the landscape:
Some of the most successful himas are those used for honey production, as wildflower honeys of good quality fetch a high price in the market and are economically competitive against livestock.
Summary of Landscapes values and characteristics:

The hima is a traditional system of resource tenure that has been practiced for more than 1400 years in the Arabian Peninsula. It predates Islam, not necessarily in its existing form or after the introduction of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula. In any case, the hima is the most widespread and longstanding indigenous / traditional conservation institution in the Middle East, and perhaps on Earth.

5.2. Cultural Heritage

A) Related to current constructions, buildings and art pieces in general

In the case of gardens: original and current style:
It is not the case.
B) Related to ancient remains

  • Traces in the environment of human activity: Agriculture.
C) Related to intangible, social and spiritual values

  • Languages and dialects: Arabic
  • Lifestyle, believing, cults, traditional rites: Traditional lifestyle.

5.3. Quality

Condition: environmental/ cultural heritage degradation:
During the twentieth century, political and socio-economic changes in the region led to the deterioration of the hima system. The fall of the Ottoman Empire resulted in stronger control by the smaller states that emerged from its ruins. Tribal land was nationalized and higher demand for rural products, especially meat, led to overgrazing. Sustainable systems of land use declined and so did the diversity of habitats. -State of the Hima in Saudi Arabia: In Saudi Arabia, where the hima system was most prominent, the number of himas dropped from an estimated 3,000 in the 1960’s to a few dozen in present times, and only a few of these are still being managed actively by local communities. Enormous economic and social changes have taken place in recent decades, with bewildering rapidity. Tribal ownership and management of land have been replaced with national ownership and management, and human populations have increased, leading to mounting demands on land for housing and farms, as well as increasing demands on pasture for ever larger herds of livestock. Many of the specific objectives for which these himas were established no longer meet the needs of the local communities. With the mechanization of agriculture, for example, there is little need for draft animals, himas that were established for cattle and horses are now often used to graze sheep and goats. Although there is widespread official recognition of the value of himas in Saudi Arabia, they receive no government support. A royal decree in 1953 abolished himas, the decree was later clarified to mean the abolition only of the governmental himas, not traditional himas, but in any case, another decree in 1954 nationalized the Kingdom’s rural lands under the Ministry of Agriculture.
Perspectives/Views/ Points of interest/Setting:

All the himas mentioned in the point 1.3.

6. VALUES

Tangible

  • Ecological
  • Ethnological
  • Living heritage
  • Maintenance quality
The main tangible values of "Traditional Himas in Saudi Arabia" are: -Ecological/Maintenance quality: Increasingly, contemporary conservationists have seen in the hima an important link between conservation of renewable resources and sustainable development. Some of the relatively recent conservation systems such as parks, nature reserves and protected areas have led to detriments in the Middle East and elsewhere, including the displacement of indigenous people and impoverishment of local communities that have been denied access to the natural resources on which they have depended for their livelihoods. A number of consultants to Arab governments have advocated the renewed use of this indigenous traditional institution and the application of knowledge and practices derived from the hima to protected areas in general. -Living heritage/Ethnological: Most of the himas functioned as grazing reserves for restricted use by a village community, clan or tribe, which were set aside to allow regeneration as part of a grazing management strategy. In many cases, they provided sedentary agriculturalists with pastures that were insured against overexploitation by nomadic herders, showing in any case an specific way of interaction between humann being and nature.

Intangible

  • Historical
The main intangible values of "Traditional Himas in Saudi Arabia" are: -Historical: The hima is a traditional system of resource tenure that has been practiced for more than 1400 years in the Arabian Peninsula. It predates Islam, not necessarily in its existing form or after the introduction of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula. In any case, the hima is the most widespread and longstanding indigenous / traditional conservation institution in the Middle East, and perhaps on Earth. -Cultural: The hima are based in principles of community-conservation that include empowerment of local communities, increasing public participation, equitable use and sharing of natural resources, preservation of indigenous knowledge and local customs, recognition of indigenous customary rights, and show a traditional way of living which is still alive.
Authenticity:
The hima is not a panacea, himas have faced the same kinds of conflicts that other protected areas have faced, and will continue to face them. But the hima concept does introduce a normative element that is absent from the value-neutral designation of the words “protected area.” The hima should be understood not only in terms of the tribal links and customary practices that have characterized traditional himas, but also in terms of the broad ethical principles. It is not a separate category of protected area, indeed, the full spectrum of IUCN protected area categories is applicable to the hima, provided that the protected area in question meet the four normative criteria mentioned above. To be a hima, a protected area should: • be constituted by a legitimate governing authority, • be established in the Way of God, for purposes pertaining to public welfare, • not cause undue hardship to the local people – it should not deprive them of resources that are indispensable to their subsistence, • realize greater actual benefits to society than detriments.
Universality:
*General overview: The hima is a traditional system of resource tenure that has been practiced for more than 1400 years in the Arabian Peninsula. It predates Islam, not necessarily in its existing form or after the introduction of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula. In any case, the hima is the most widespread and longstanding indigenous / traditional conservation institution in the Middle East, and perhaps on Earth. The Arabic word “hima” literally means “a protected place” or “protected area.” A hima may be established for any purpose that pertains to the common good, so it could be managed for either conservation of biodiversity or sustainable use of natural resources. In practice, traditional himas in Saudi Arabia have achieved both aims In contrast with governmental himas, traditional himas were governed according to customary management practices. Most were managed by and for a particular village, clan or tribe. Hima's management is culturally and environmentaly interesting because of: -Most traditional himas are managed locally through processes involving consultation and consensus, so individuals in the community are able to influence management decisions. -Customary management of himas has proven pragmatic and flexible. -Few established systems of protected areas are known to have a history comparable in length with traditional himas. -Himas are still regarded as an essential source of fodder, thus they continue to play a role in times of drought and poor seasons. -They provide a potential for ecological and socio-economic research, they are national gems of which a great deal of knowledge and understanding can be derived. *Significance of the Hima: The hima is of particular interest in light of emerging conservation trends, as nature conservation paradigms shift away from the establishment of “mighty parks” toward the emergence of community-based conservation, community conserved areas and co-managed areas. Principles of community-based conservation include empowerment of local communities, increasing public participation, equitable use and sharing of natural resources, preservation of indigenous knowledge and local customs, and recognition of indigenous customary rights. The himas that remain should be used actively as instruments for conservation. Many are located in areas of high species diversity, and many support key biological habitats, such as juniper, olive, and Ziziphus woodlands. Their role as seedbanks to rehabilitate the surrounding rangelands is valuable and will become increasingly important as grazing and development pressures increase. They can play a role in halting and reversing desertification and sand dune encroachment. As they represent a range of areas that have been managed under a type of protection for long periods of time, they provide an indicator of range health and potential under particular environmental conditions, and should be utilized for ecological research.
Values linked to the Islamic culture and civilisation:
The hima predates Islam, not necessarily in its existing form or after the introduction of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula. The Arabic word “hima” literally means “a protected place” or “protected area.” In pre-Islamic times, access to this place was declared forbidden by the individual or group who owned it. Later its meaning evolved to signify a rangeland reserve, a piece of land set aside seasonally to allow regeneration. In Islamic law, to be legally valid a hima has to meet four conditions, derived from the rulings of the prophet Muhammad and the early caliphs: 1. It should be constituted by the “imam” – the legitimate governing authority, 2. it should be established in the Way of God, for purposes pertaining to the publicwelfare, 3. it should not cause undue hardship to the local people – it should not deprive them of resources that are indispensable to their subsistence, and 4. it should realize greater actual benefits to society than detriments. This accords closely with current thinking on equity in the planning and management of protected areas. Himas continued to exist both near settlements and in rural nomadic areas throughout the Middle Ages. They varied in size from a few hectares to hundreds of square kilometers. Tribes were delegated authority by the governing authorities to be the custodians of their himas and to control them on behalf of the central government. For centuries, local inhabitants of the rural and nomadic lands successfully established environmental planning and management strategies that balanced the growth of settlements and the use of natural resources according to Islamic law and tribal self-government.

7. ENCLOSURES

Historical and graphical data (drawings, paintings, engravings, photographs, literary items…):

Traditional Himas in Saudi Arabia is one of all of the cultural landscapes of Morocco which is included in The Cultural Landscape inventory runned by Med-O-Med.

Bibliography:

http://www.greenprophet.com/2010/09/examples-of-hima/ http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=916 http://www.ifees.org http://whc.unesco.org/venice2002 -Draz, O. (1969). The Hema System of Range Reserves in the Arabian Peninsula: Its Possibilities in Range Improvement and Conservation Projects in the Middle East, FAO/PL:PFC/13.11, FAO (Rome, 1969). -Fazlun, K. (2003). The Application of Islamic Environmental Ethics to Promote Marine Conservation in Zanzibar, a Case Study. -Ghanem, Y. et al (1984). Hema and traditional land use management among arid zone villagers of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Arid Environments (London) 7 (1984): 287–297. -Kilani, H. et al. (2007). Al-Hima: A way of life, IUCN West Asia regional Office, Amman Jordan – SPNL Beirut, Lebanon, 2007. -Lutfallah, G. (2006). A History of the Hima Conservation System. Environment and History, -Othman, A. (1992). “Conservation in Islamic Law” in National Legal Strategies for Protected Areas Conservation and Management, Fourth World Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas, Caracas, 45–46. -Othman, A. (2003). The Basis for a Discipline of Islamic Environmental Law, in Islam and Ecology: A Bestowed Trust, edited by Richard C. Foltz et al. (Cambridge, Mass.: Center for the Study of World Religions, Harvard Divinity School, Harvard University Press, 2003), 185–247. -Othman, A. (2007). The Hima in Saudi Arabia, Conservation for Poverty Reduction, Traditional Approaches in West Asia: Hima Revival and Evolution through the 21st Century. Othman, A. The Protected Area System in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Revised Plan, NCWCD, in press. -SPNL publications on hima (Hima Ebel es Saqi, Hima Qoleileh, Hima, Important Bird Areas, and Site Support Groups). -UNESCO. (2001). Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage. World Heritage Committee. 25 session. Helsinki, Finland. -UNESCO. (2002). Cultural Landscapes: the Challenges of Conservation. Associated Workshops, World Heritage. Ferrara, Italy.

Compiler Data: Sara Martínez Frías.