• Keywords: Azerbaijan Cultural Landscape, Caucasus, archaeological remains, ancient cities, Sheki, Shaki, Shemakha, Samaxi, Qax, Gabala, Qabala, Ilisu, Kum, Lekit, Boyuk Amili, Pirgulu, Kohmurad.

1. OFFICIAL CLASSIFICATIONS AND CATEGORIES

1.1 National and International Classification Lists

Sheki’s Palace is proposed in the Tentative List of UNESCO as a cultural site, with the name “Sheki, the Khan’s Palace”, date of Submission: 24/10/2001, criteria: (i)(iv)(v), category: cultural and ref.: 1576. Also there is a region in Ilisu, near to Qax, that the Azerbaijan’s Government has declared as a State Reserve (Ilisu State Reserve).

1.2. Cultural Landscape Category/Tipology

Organically evolved landscapes
Relict (or fossil) landscape
Associative cultural landscape
1

1.3. Description and Justification by Med-O-Med

Description

Several ancient cities and remains are scattered all around the territory of Caucasus Mountain composing an unequalled Archaeological Landscape. The most important are Sheki, Shemakha, Qax, Gabala, Ilisu, Kun, Lekit and Boyuk Amili. Sheki is proposed in the Tentative List of UNESCO as a cultural site because of its famous palace (Khan’s Palace). As the ancient cities are in a vast area of the range mountain, Med-O-Med has considered appropiate to classify the whole site as a Cultural Landscape (associative and relict landscape) taking into account its natural and cultural heritage (UNESCO Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, Article 1, 1972, Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention, 2008), considering that Caucasus Mountain is a natural environment where people from different periods of the history have left their traces: -Its Natural Heritage Components: the ancient cities of the site are inseparable from its environmental context: the Caucasus Massif. Sheki is at the southern slopes of the Major Caucasus. Its natural landscape and unusual beauty enriches the appearance of Sheki, and from an expressive background to its architecture. A lot of verdure and the old street, made of cobblestone, intensify connection between the city and nature. Near to Shemakha ancient city, there are the Pirgulu mountains, recommended as a good skiing spot. Also in these mountains is located the Tusi astronomic observatory, what gives an idea about the purity of the nature in the site. Qax is a pleasan town, northwest of Sheki, at the base of an appendix of Azeri territory that penetrates into Georgia and Dagestan. The town was built on the bank of the mountain river Kurhumchai, near the base of the Greater Caucasus. Near to Qax there is the Ilisu State Reserve, declared by the Azerbaijan Government because of the richness of its natural components. Gabala ancient city is located in an area of tall mountains and deep canyons, near the Garachay and Gochalanchay rivers. Boyuk Amili, is beside to Kohmurad mountain, an ancient lookout position controlling the city and the mountains. -Its Cultural Heritage Components: architectonical and archaeological are the main values of the site. Sheki is one of the most ancient settlements and cultural centres of Azerbaijan (the original settlement dates back to the late bronze age). Sites of interest in Sheki is the Magnificent Royal Palace of Sheki Khans (Kings), constructed in 1762 without a single nail. In Shemakha ancient city it can be observed the oldest mosque in the Caucasus (10th century): the Djuma Mosque, the Seven Cupolas (Eddi Gyumbez), Mausoleum is the burial place for members of the royal families of the Shirvan shahs. The half-ruined cupolas are located across the valley from Shemakha.On the hills just outside Shemakha you can visit the derelict 11-th century Gulistan fortress (near Xinishli village). In Qax there are the Georgian Orthodox church, and all the istorical sites abound in Qax rayon: in Termechi, the tomb of Haji Murat, a naib (commander) of Sheikh Shamil, in the village of Kum there are several monuments dated to the period of Caucasian Albania, though Georgian also claim them as theirs: fortress Sirtgala of 18th century, Kum Basilica, ruins dated to the 5th century, The Round Temple (7th century), in the village of Lekit there are the ruins of a 12th century monastery complex. Gabala ancient city is notorious for the ruins of an ancient walled city (Chukur Gabala), dating back to the 4th century BC. Nearby is Boyuk Amili, famous for the remains its Albanian church.

2. NAME / LOCATION / ACCESSIBILITY

  • Current denomination Caucasus, Sheki, Shemakha, Qax, Gabala, Kum, Likit, Ilisu, Boyuk Amili.
  • Current denomination Caucasus, Sheki, Shemakha, Qax, Gabala, Kum, Likit, Ilisu, Boyuk Amili.
  • Original denomination Sheki (Shaki), Shemakha (Samaxi), Qax (Qaxh), Gabala (Qabala), Kum (Qum), Lekit, Ilisu, Boyuk Amili.
  • Popular denomination Caucasus, Sheki, Shemakha, Qax, Gabala, Likit, Ilisu, Boyuk Amili.
  • Address: Caucasus Mountains, Azerbaijan. Districts (rayons): Samaxi, Shaki, Qaxh, Qabala.
  • Geographical coordinates: Shemakha: 40°37′49″N 48°38′29″E Sheki: 41°11′31″N 47°10′14″E Qax: 41°25′13″N 46°55′18″E
  • Area, boundaries and surroundings: The ancient cities are scattered in the territory of Caucasus Mountains: -Sheki is located at the southern slopes of the Major Caucasus. -Shemakha is located at the foothills of the Big Caucasus Mountains Chain. The general elevation of Shemakha is 800 meters over the sea level. -Qax is a pleasant and tranquil provincial town, northwest of Sheki, at the base of an appendix of Azeri territory that penetrates into Georgia and Dagestan. The town was built on the bank of the mountain river Kurhumchai, near the base of the Greater Caucasus. -Gabala is located in an area of tall mountains and deep canyons, near the Garachay and Gochalanchay rivers.
  • Facilities:

    There are museums in the cities of the region, for example, Sheki’s History Museum, with artefacts from several periods, but notorious for pieces relating to silk manufacturing and trade, or the History Museum and the Sabir Museum in Sehmakha.

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CAUCASUS CULTURAL LANDSCAPE (AZERBAIJAN)

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CAUCASUS CULTURAL LANDSCAPE (AZERBAIJAN) 40.630278, 48.641389 CAUCASUS CULTURAL LANDSCAPE (AZERBAIJAN) (Directions)

3. LEGAL ISSUES

  • Owner: Azerbaijan Government.
  • Body responsible for the maintenance: Azerbaijan Government.
  • Legal protection: Med-O-Med only has found information about the legal protection of Ilisu State Reserve, near to Qax.

4. HISTORY

-Sheki history: The original settlement dates back to the late bronze age. During the 7th century, Sheki was taken by Arab invaders becoming dependent on a local emirate. However, in the 9th century with the weakening of Arab power a Christian state was established by the last remaining forces of the Albanian kings. It was later taken by the Shirvanshahs, the Mongols under Tamerlane and the Safavids. By the 18th century, Sheki was capital of its own Khanate, only to be taken by the Russians in 1805. After the Russian revolution, the Red Army only took Sheki in 1920. Located on the left bank of the river Kish, originally the town sited lower down the hill, however Sheki was moved to its present location after a devastating mud flood in 1772. As the new location was near the village of Nukha, the city became also known as Nukha, until 1960 when it reverted back to the name Sheki, after the Sak tribe. -Shemakha history: For a long period Shemakha knew a very active commercial life, being one of the basic points in the region the Silk Route was going through. Once the capital of Shirvan, Shemakha attracted not only invaders that plundered it but was nearly destroyed over the centuries by repeated earthquakes (1902, 1872, 1859, 1828,1669 and 1667), the most recent shook Shemakha on November 25th, 2000 causing some material damage and a handful of injured people. In spite of all the seismic activity, some ancient buildings have survived, and are worth seeing. -Qax history: Artificial hills suggest that the region was inhabited already in the Bronze Age. The village of Ilisu was once the capital of an independent sultanate. -Gabala history: Gabala is notorious for the ruins of an ancient walled city (Chukur Gabala), dating back to the 4th century BC. Situated south of Mirzabaili, 20km from the modern town, although with an area of 25 hectares the ruins of Chukur Gabala were only discovered in 1959. Since then a lot of archaeological work has been done, uncovering a wide area of urban settlement and artefacts evidencing trade links with Europe, Asia and the middle east. You can still see the remains of five watchtowers and the walls between them, burial grounds, gates, furnaces, residences, etc. Gabala was for 600 years the capital of ancient Caucasian Albania mentioned in the works of antique historians of the 1st century. Later in the Arabian sources it was mentioned as Khazar. At first Gabala was a part of Shirvanshahs state and later Sheki khanate. The city was repeatedly exposed to devastating invasions. But, despite of this Gabala has preserved material evidence of its civilized past. The ruins of ancient Gabala are 5 km from the present day city.

5. GENERAL DESCRIPTION

5.1. Natural heritage

  • Heritage: Archaeological
  • Geography: High Mountain
  • Site topography: Natural
  • Climate and environmental conditions: The geographical position of region influences to the density of river net, richness of land-plant cover of region, upland relief and formation of complex climate condition in the vertical material fit. The damp- subtropical sea climate has been refereed in the territory of the region 25 million years ago. Tumultuous rains, hot weather conditions caused to development of the thick evergreen forest cover. There existed climate condition for multifoliolate evergreen and pouring leaves in an arid period of a year-in summer like climate condition of Mediterranean shores million years ago. The last continental boulder-period happened in our planet 10-12 thousand years ago the high and average upland territory covered with mountain glacier, then in accordance with climate warming the glaciers have melted and diminished and has approached to the modern boundaries.
  • Geological and Geographical characteristics: High mountain, rich soil, abundant forest and alpine meadows are distinctive features of this part of Azerbaijan.
Water resources:
Natural springs, lakes, lagoons, rivers.
Vegetation:

Abundant forest.

Land uses and economical activities:
-Sheki: Sheki is long famed as a silk centre and an important stop on the silk route, Sheki is still the site of a huge factory that was once the Soviet Union's largest silk plant (such a big factory was naturally named after Lenin...). In its golden period, the factory employed over 7.000 (out of a population reaching almost 100.000). Nowadays the silk industry is still alive, but through smaller private workshops. The agricultural activity is quite important, with tobacco, grapes, grain, nuts, cattle and milk as the main products. -Shemakha: The population of this district works mostly in viticulture, vine growing and wine making (Shemakha is famous for excellent wines produced both in wineries and privately at homes), cultivation of fruit and vegetables, cattle-breeding and carpet weaving. Visitors can tour carpet factories and local vineyards (which produce sweet fortified wines). The wine tradition is quite old and the area even has its own pink grape variety, Madrasa / Matrassa, indigenous to Madrasa, a village in Shamakha rayon. These grapes are used for excellent dry red wines, such as "Giz Galasi", "Yeddi Gozal", "Naznazi" and "Gara Gila". Local legend claims that the first french vines came from Shemakha! In fact the wine produced along the western Caucasus came a long way. As early as the late 15th century wines from this area were bought by some of the more demanding wine connoisseurs in western Europe: the Portuguese. Scores of traders, soldiers, priests and adventurers followed Portuguese expansion in Asia, creating a local market for the Caucasian wines. A few bottles are reported to have even reached the shores of Portugal itself. -Qax rayon: In the villages of Saribash and Dzhalai local craftswomen weave carpets with original patterns and sew woolen socks called jorabs. In the village of Gahbash the residents produce home-made wines (400 km northwest of Baku).
Agricultural issues or other traditional productions and their effect on the landscape:
-Sheki: For many centuries, Sheki has been famous as the basic centre of silkworm-breeding. Tobacco, fruit, vegetables and corn have a long history of cultivation here, as well as the stock-raising. -Shemakha The population of this district works mostly in viticulture, vine growing and wine making (Shemakha is famous for excellent wines produced both in wineries and privately at homes), cultivation of fruit and vegetables. -Gabala: The area is rich in 500-year-old nut.
Summary of Landscapes values and characteristics:

***Caucasus Massif is a beatiful rural environment plenty of tall mountains (Major Caucasus, Pilirgu Mountains, Kohmurad Mountain), hills, ravines, deep canyons (surroundings of Gabala), lagoons, rivers (Kurhumchai, Garachay and Gochalanchay rivers) crop fields, etc. Near to Qax there is the Ilisu State Reserve, declared by the Azerbaijan Government because of the richness of its natural components. There are, in the area, archaeological remains and architectonical elements of great interest that must be conserved in Sheki, Shemakha, Gabala or Qax.

5.2. Cultural Heritage

A) Related to current constructions, buildings and art pieces in general

Architectonical elements /Sculptures:

-Sheki: The mountains from three sides surround Sheki, and on its territory Gurjana and Deyirman rivers unite. Its relief and location on the slope of the mountain influenced the structure of the streets and squares. The winding, streets, the narrow by-streets and blind-alleys gave a complicate, but acceptable and also beautiful form to the building plan of Sheki. An ancient part of Sheki “Yukharibash” was declared an architectural reserve in 1968. There was discovered 13 blocks, which were formed according to the medieval city-building principles. In every block there was a mosque, a bath-house and a local square. The highest point of Sheki is Mahammadkhasan Khan stronghold was formed in 1743-1754 years. There are two gates (Ganja and Shirvan), which are surrounded by stronghold walls. The building of Khan’s Palace, a round place for praying and other subsidiary buildings are the models of architectural beauty on its territory. The building of Sheki Khans’ palace according to its expressive architectural structure, numerous shining walls, which decorate the interior and the riches of graceful wooden works can be considered a rare architectural work. On the Gurjina riverbank, there is a street of mastership and trade center. There are also the biggest caravan sheds (Yukhari and Ashagi Caravan sheds), shops, workshops, Friday Mosque and some patrimonies. The mosques, the bath-houses, one or two-storied dwelling houses, which were built in XVIII-XIX centuries in Sheki blocks can be considered as an architectural monuments. The decoration of ancient houses of Sheki with bright colours, the ornament of wooden windows and the beautiful fireplaces confirm the medieaval traditions of the natural architecture. The best model of these houses is the house of Sheki Khan (XIX century). One of the interesting monuments of Sheki. -Gabala: Gabala vicinities have numerous historical and architectural monuments. The village of Nidzh, not far from Gabala, is known for a unique architectural monument of the Caucasian Albania – Udin Temple. The udins are absolutely special ethnic group who are considered descendants of Alabanians (only 10,000 of them left). They have managed to preserve their traditions, language, material and spiritual culture up to now. Just recently the temple has been restored and today it is open for church-goers of udin Christian community and tourists wishing to witness the most ancient landmark of Azerbaijan. The restored temple was constructed in the17th – 18th centuries on the site of an ancient Albanian church which had been built at will Saint Eliseus – the Christian ecclesiast and educator honored in the Caucasian Albania. The present day temple has been named after him. -Shemakha: The Djuma Mosque, has been rebuilt several times, but it dates back to the 10th century, making it one of the oldest buildings still standing in the town and the oldest mosque in the Caucasus, occupying the site of an ancient sun worshipers temple. The Seven Cupolas (Eddi Gyumbez) Mausoleum is the burial place for members of the royal families of the Shirvan shahs, for whom Shemakha was the capital for several centuries. The half-ruined cupolas are located across the valley from Shemakha and bear witness to the formidable earthquakes they had to withstand. For further historical details try the History Museum and the Sabir Museum. On the hills just outside Shemakha you can visit the derelict 11-th century Gulistan fortress (near Xinishli village). -Qax: The town’s name is translates as “fortress”. There is a culture centre, but social life runs around the chaikana, an interesting building with a metallic dome, located near the Baku bus stop, on a park with a monument to Mammad Mammadov. The main bus station is in the south of the town, near the attractive main Georgian Orthodox church.

Art pieces, artesany, furniture and other elements:

-Sheki: The manufactures of the Shekian jewellers, potters, engravers, pastry-cooks have been famous not only in Azerbaijan but far abroad as well. -Qax rayon: In the villages of Saribash and Dzhalai local craftswomen weave carpets with original patterns and sew woolen socks called jorabs.

In the case of gardens: original and current style:
It is not the case.
B) Related to ancient remains

  • Archaeological components:

    -Sheki: The original settlement dates back to the late bronze age. During the 7th century, Sheki was taken by Arab invaders becoming dependent on a local emirate. There are several ancient remains in this area coming from this period. -Qax: Historical sites abound in Qax rayon. Artificial hills suggest that the region was inhabited already in the Bronze Age. The village of Ilisu was once the capital of an independent sultanate. There is only one street but two castle towers, a mosque and a bridge dating from the 18 th century remain. Near Kakhi, in the forests of the village of Termechi, you’ll find the tomb of Haji Murat, a naib (commander) of Sheikh Shamil – he was a fighter against Russian occupation, made famous by Tolstoy’s story ‘Haji Murat’. On his grave there is a mounted stone plate with an inscription in Arabic reading “A great martyr, Avar Hadzhi Murat Hunzah is buried here”. In the village of Kum / Qum there are several monuments dated to the period of Caucasian Albania, though Georgian also claim them as theirs: fortress Sirtgala of 18th century, Kum Basilica, ruins dated to the 5th century, The Round Temple (7th century). The Basilica in Kum was constructed in the 4th century and is one of the earliest examples of a three-nave Basilica in the region. During the time of construction, ancient Christian Albanians occupied modern Muslim Azerbaijan.In the village of Lekit there are the ruins of a 12th century monastery complex. The Lekit circular temple (fifth or sixth century) is made of cobblestone, limestone, and burnt brick and, with similar monuments in Georgia and present-day Armenia, is typical of the Transcaucasian styles of that period. In the villages of Saribash and Dzhalai local craftswomen weave carpets with original patterns and sew woolen socks called jorabs. In the village of Gahbash the residents produce home-made wines. (400 km northwest of Baku) -Gabala: Located in an area of tall mountains and deep canyons, near the Garachay and Gochalanchay rivers, Gabala is notorious for the ruins of an ancient walled city (Chukur Gabala), dating back to the 4th century BC. Situated south of Mirzabaili, 20km from the modern town, although with an area of 25 hectares the ruins of Chukur Gabala were only discovered in 1959. Since then a lot of archaeological work has been done, uncovering a wide area of urban settlement and artefacts evidencing trade links with Europe, Asia and the middle east. You can still see the remains of five watchtowers and the walls between them, burial grounds, gates, furnaces, residences, etc. Nearby is Boyuk Amili, famous for the remains its Albanian church. After you visit the site have a look at the History museum (located in a mosque in the modern city) housing most of the artefacts found in the excavations. Among the findings there is a treasure with coins from ancient Greece, bearing Alexander the Great’s image. The city has an interesting cultural centre, with beautiful Soviet mosaics, a large war memorial, numerous ancient stone houses and the Rashidbek monument, shapped as a huge book. To enjoy a good perspective of the city climb the neighbouring Kohmurad mountain, an ancient lookout position controlling the city and the mountains.

  • Historical routes:

    -Sheki: Sheki is long famed as a silk centre and an important stop on the Silk Route. -Shemakka: For a long period Shemakha knew a very active commercial life, being one of the basic points in the region the Silk Route was going through.

  • Traces in the environment of human activity: All the ancient remains found in the area.
C) Related to intangible, social and spiritual values

  • Population, ethnic groups: -Qax is a pleasant and tranquil provincial town, northwest of Sheki, at the base of an appendix of Azeri territory that penetrates into Georgia and Dagestan. Not surprisingly a large proportion of the population is Georgian. -Gabala: Azerbaijanis, Udi, Turks and a few of other nationalities. -Gabala: the udins (village of Nidzh) are absolutely special ethnic group who are considered descendants of Alabanians (only 10,000 of them left). They have managed to preserve their traditions, language, material and spiritual culture up to now.

5.3. Quality

Quality of the night sky, light pollution and possibility to observe the stars:
High in the Pirgulu mountains, 13 km from Shemakha, 1.400m above seal level, is located the Tusi astronomic observatory, built in the 1960s named after the 13-th century Azeri astronomer, it has the biggest mirror telescope in the CIS.
Perspectives/Views/ Points of interest/Setting:

-Caucasus Masif, all the mountains mentioned above. -Ilisu State Nature Reserve. -Ancient cities already described and all their archaeological remains.

6. VALUES

Tangible

  • Aesthetic
  • Archaeological
  • Architectonical
  • Ecological
  • Geological/Geographical
The main tangible values of Caucasus Cultural Landscape are: -Aesthetic/Geological: The natural environment of the Caucasus is very beatiful, and also has geological interest: the tall mountains (as Pilirgu Mountains or Kohmurad Mountain), hills, ravines, deep canyons (surroundings of Gabala), lagoons, rivers (Kurhumchai, Garachay and Gochalanchay rivers) crop fields, etc... -Archaeological: The original settlement of Sheki dates back to the late bronze age. During the 7th century. Ilisu is interesting with its castle towers, its mosque and a bridge dating from the 18 th century. Near Kakhi, in the forests of the village of Termechi, the tomb of Haji Murat. In the village of Kum / Qum there are ruins dated to the 5th century, and the Round Temple (7th century).In the village of Lekit there are the ruins of a 12th century monastery complex. Gabala is notorious for the ruins of an ancient walled city (Chukur Gabala), dating back to the 4th century BC. Nearby is Boyuk Amili, famous for the remains its Albanian church. -Architectonical: There are a lot of monuments in the area. Magnificent Royal Palace of Sheki Khans (Kings) constructed in 1762 without a single nail is one of the most marvellous monuments of its epoch. Gabala vicinities have numerous historical and architectural monuments. In Shemakha ancient city it can be observed the oldest mosque in the Caucasus (10th century): the Djuma Mosque, the Seven Cupolas (Eddi Gyumbez), Mausoleum is the burial place for members of the royal families of the Shirvan shahs. The half-ruined cupolas are located across the valley from Shemakha. On the hills just outside Shemakha you can visit the derelict 11-th century Gulistan fortress (near Xinishli village). In Qax there are the Georgian Orthodox church, and all the historical sites abound in Qax rayon: in Termechi, the tomb of Haji Murat, a naib (commander) of Sheikh Shamil, in the village of Kum there are several monuments dated to the period of Caucasian Albania, though Georgian also claim them as theirs: fortress Sirtgala of 18th century, Kum Basilica, ruins dated to the 5th century, The Round Temple (7th century), in the village of Lekit there are the ruins of a 12th century monastery complex. -Ecological: Near to Qax there is the Ilisu State Reserve, declared by the Azerbaijan Government because of the richness of its natural, botanical, zoological and ecological components. -Other: Shemakha is famous for excellent wines produced both in wineries and privately at homes. The wine tradition is quite old and the area even has its own pink grape variety, Madrasa / Matrassa, indigenous to Madrasa, a village in Shamakha rayon. These grapes are used for excellent dry red wines, such as "Giz Galasi", "Yeddi Gozal", "Naznazi" and "Gara Gila".

Intangible

  • Historical
The main intangible values of Caucasus Cultural Landscape are: -Historical: Cities as Sheki or Shemakha were main points of the Silk Route. All the ancient remains found in the regions show the historical importance of the site. -Social significance/cultural: The udins (from the village of Nidzh, not far from Gabala) are absolutely special ethnic group who are considered descendants of Alabanians (only 10,000 of them left). They have managed to preserve their traditions, language, material and spiritual culture up to now.
Authenticity:
The original settlements dates back to the late bronze age.
Universality:
Med-O-Med describes the universality of this Cultural Landscape considering the following UNESCO Criteria: ii) Caucasus Cultural Landscape exhibits an important interchange of human values, over a span of time because of the monumental arts of the site,and the architectonical style of the cities of the region. iii) In Caucasus there are some villages (as the village of Nidzh) that bear a unique testimony to the udin's cultural tradition. This is a special ethnic group who are considered descendants of Alabanians (only 10,000 of them left). iv) The main monuments of the ancient cities mentioned in this file (Palace, mosqes, fostresses, castles, towers, squares in Sheki, Shemakha, Galata, Qaz, etc.) are outstanding examples of a type of building which illustrates significant stages in human history. vii) Caucasus Massif contains superlative natural phenomena and areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance: mountains, rivers, canyons, and Ilisu Reserve.
Values linked to the Islamic culture and civilisation:
-Historical value: During the 7th century, Sheki was taken by Arab invaders becoming dependent on a local emirate.

7. ENCLOSURES

Historical and graphical data (drawings, paintings, engravings, photographs, literary items…):

*** Caucasus Cultural Landscape and its Cultural Landscape is one of all of the cultural landscapes of Azerbaijan which are included in The Cultural Landscape inventory runned by Med-O-Med.

Bibliography:

http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/1576/ http://azerbaijan24.com/cities/city/5-Sheki.html eonames.nga.mil/ggmagaz/detaillinksearch.asp?G_NAME=’32FA8814FCF03774E0440003BA962ED3’&Diacritics=DC http://swtravel.az/en/index.php?stype=localtours&slevel=1&sid=33 http://www.azerembassy-kuwait.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=124&Itemid=23 http://aze.info/sheki_more_details/ http://azer.com/aiweb/categories/magazine/62_folder/62_articles/62_shaki.html http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/nndc/struts/results?eq_0=1047&t=101650&s=13&d=22,26,13,12&nd=display http://www.qebele-ih.gov.az/ -Gink, K. (1979). Azerbaijan: Mosques, Turrets, Palaces. Corvina-Kiado. pp. 60–61. -Świętochowski, T. and Collins B.C. (1999). Historical Dictionary of Azerbaijan. Scarecrow Press, Incorporated Canham, Maryland – 145 páginas -UNESCO. (2001). Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage. World Heritage Committee. 25 session. Helsinki, Finland. -UNESCO. (2002). Cultural Landscapes: the Challenges of Conservation. Associated Workshops, World Heritage. Ferrara , Italy.

Compiler Data: Sara Martínez Frías.