• Keywords: Turkey, Cultural Landscape, Cappadocia, Göreme, Zelve, Open-Air Museum, Chisar, Kaymakli, Derinkuyu, Underground City, Ihlara valley, Ortahisar, Avanos, Pasabag, The Monk valley, Devrent, Gulsehir, Caravanserais, frescoes, Byzantine art.

1. OFFICIAL CLASSIFICATIONS AND CATEGORIES

1.1 National and International Classification Lists

Göreme National Park and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia is in the World Heritage List of UNESCO, date of inscription: 1985, criteria: (i)(iii)(v)(vii), and ref: 357. Göreme plateau is also a National Park (Göreme Milli Parklar in Turkish).

  • World heritage list of UNESCO
  • Protection Figures

1.2. Cultural Landscape Category/Tipology

Organically evolved landscapes
Relict (or fossil) landscape

1.3. Description and Justification by Med-O-Med

Description

The environment of Capadocia has been extensively used and modified by human-being for centuries resulting an unique landscape in harmony with the intrinsic values of the natural landforms. In the ruin like landscape of the Cappadocia plateau where natural erosion has sculpted the tuff into shapes which are eerily reminiscent of towers, spires, domes and pyramids, human-being has added to the workmanship of the elements by digging cells, churches and veritable subterranean cities which together make up one of the world’s largest cave dwelling complexes. Although interesting from a geological and ethnological point of view, this phenomenal rupestral site excels especially for the incomparable beauty of the decor of the Christian sanctuaries whose features make Cappadocia one of the leading examples of post-iconoclast Byzantine art. The dwellings, village convents and churches retain the fossilized images of a province of the Byzantine Empire between the 4th century and the Turkish invasion. The historical setting, the rock-hewn churches and the unusual eroded landforms combine to produce a mixed cultural/natural landscape of unusual appearance. Architectural styles are based on the local stone and the valley has changed little over the centuries. The value of the site is recognized in the World Heritge List of UNESCO (1985). Taking into account all the reasons given above and teh UNECO criteria for Cultural Landscape (UNESCO Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, Article 1, 1972) Med-O-Med has decided to give one more step proposing the site as a Cultural Landscape in the category: Organically evolved (continuing) Landscape . -Main sites in Cappadocia Cultural Landscape: Most of the churches and chapels are in the Göreme and in the Zelve Open-Air Museums. The most important churches and chapels in Göreme are: the Nunnery, St. Barbara Church, Snake (Yilanli) Church, Dark Church (Karanlik Kilise), Carikli (Sandals) Church, Buckle (Tokali) Church. In Zelve: Geyikli Kilise, Uzumlu Kilise (The Church with Grapes) and Balikli Kilise (The Church with Fishes). There are also in Cappadocia the underground cities: Kaymakli Underground City (the largest underground city) and Derinkuyu Underground City (the deepest underground city). Ihlara Valley has the deepest gorge of Anatolia. Uchisar and Ortahisar have Roman rock-cut castles. Avanos is the center of pottery since the Hittites. Pasabag houses the mushroom-shaped fairy chimneys, and the monks valley. In Devrent, animal-shaped fairy chimneys can be observed. Gulsehir is interesting because it was teh first settlement in Cappadocia. Caravanserais are 13th century hotels on the silk road, aslo important for this inventory.

2. NAME / LOCATION / ACCESSIBILITY

  • Current denomination Göreme, Cappadocia.
  • Current denomination Göreme, Cappadocia.
  • Original denomination Göreme (Korama, Matiana, Maccan or Machan, and Avcilar), Göreme, Cappadocia.
  • Popular denomination Göreme (Korama, Matiana, Maccan or Machan, and Avcilar), Göreme, Capadoccia.
  • Address: Nevşehir Province (Cappadocia) in Central Anatolia.
  • Geographical coordinates: Cappadocia: 38°39′30″N 34°51′13″E
  • Area, boundaries and surroundings: Cappadocia is now the sprawling area of central Turkey which lies between Aksaray in the west, Kayseri in the east and Nigde in the south. Modern Cappadocia is an incredible place, criss-crossed with valleys and dotted with dramatic rock formations. The main sites of Cappadocia and their locations are: -Goreme Open-Air Museum. It is only 1.5km from Goreme village center. The UNESCO property (Göreme National Park and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia) has 9,884 ha. -Zelve is situated about 10 km out from Goreme on the Avanos road. -Ihlara Valley. Near Mount Hasan and Mount Melendiz there is a canyon with a depth of approximately 100m and was formed by the Melendiz River thousands of years ago. It begins at Ihlara village and ends with Selime Monastery at Selime village after making 26 bends along 14 kilometers. -Chisar and Uchisar Castle. Uchisar is situated at the highest point in Cappadocia, on the Nevsehir-Goreme road, just 5 km from Goreme. -Ortahisar. It is central among the Cappadocian towns of Goreme, Urgup, Uchisar and Nevsehir, and only a few kilometers from the Goreme Open Air Museum. - Pasabag (Monks Valley) is located on the road to Zelve, coming from Goreme or Avanos. -Devrent Valley. The area reveals many different rock formations and is only a 10 minute drive from Goreme. -Gulsehir, situated on the southern bank of the Red River (Kizilirmak). -The town of Avanos, in Cappadocia, is set on the banks of the Kizilirmak, the Red River.
  • Access and transport facilities: The region is located southwest of the major city Kayseri, which has airline and railway service to Ankara and Istanbul. Goreme and the Cappadocia region is easily accessible from all parts of Turkey. The towns of this region can be reached via bus from Kayseri airport. Long-distance buses also run from Istanbul and Ankara to the Cappadocia region.
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Cappadocia Cultural Landscape (TURKEY)

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Cappadocia Cultural Landscape (TURKEY) 38.658333, 34.853611 Cappadocia Cultural Landscape (TURKEY) (Directions)

3. LEGAL ISSUES

Property regime
  • Public
  • Owner: Turkish Government.
  • Body responsible for the maintenance: Turkish Government.
  • Legal protection: The Göreme National Park (Göreme Milli Parklar in Turkish) was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1985.

4. HISTORY

Cappadocia was known as Hatti in the late Bronze Age, and was the homeland of the Hittite power centred at Hattusa. After the fall of the Hittite Empire, with the decline of the Syro-Cappadocians (Mushki) after their defeat by the Lydian king Croesus in the 6th century, Cappadocia was ruled by a sort of feudal aristocracy, dwelling in strong castles and keeping the peasants in a servile condition, which later made them apt for foreign slavery. It was included in the third Persian satrapy in the division established by Darius, but continued to be governed by rulers of its own, none apparently supreme over the whole country and all more or less tributaries of the Great King. It is believed that the first signs of monastic activity in Cappadocia date back to the 4th century at which time, acting on the instructions of Basil the Great, Bishop of Caesarea (Kayseri), small anchoritic communities began inhabiting cells dug into the rock. Later on, in order to resist Arab forays they began banding together into troglodyte villages or subterranean towns such as Kaymaklı or Derinkuyu which served as places of refuge. Cappadocian monasticism was already well established in the iconoclast period (725-842), as illustrated by the many sanctuaries, the decoration of which was held to the strict minimum of symbols (most often sculpted or tempera painted crosses). After 842, however, many rupestral churches were dug in Cappadocia. These churches were richly decorated with brightly coloured figurative painting. Among them were those in the Göreme valley: Tokalı Kilise, El Nazar Kilise (10th century), Barbara Kilise, Saklı Kilise (11th century), Elmalı Kilise and Karanlık Kilise (end of the 12th to beginning of the 13th centuries), etc. The first period of settlement in Göreme goes back to the Roman period. The Yusuf Koç, Ortahane, Durmus Kadir and Bezirhane churches in Göreme, and houses and churches carved into rocks in the Uzundere, Bağıldere and Zemi Valleys all illustrate history and can be seen today. The Göreme Open Air Museum is the most visited site of the monastic communities in Cappadocia (see Churches of Göreme, Turkey) and is one of the most famous sites in central Turkey. The complex contains more than 30 carved-from-rock churches and chapels, some having superb frescoes inside, dating from the 9th century to the 11th century.

  • Oldest initial date /building and inauguration date: See point 4.1.
  • Historical and/or outstanding personalities involved: See point 4.1.

5. GENERAL DESCRIPTION

5.1. Natural heritage

  • Heritage: Rural
  • Geography: Arid Mountain
  • Site topography: Natural
  • Geological and Geographical characteristics: Sedimentary rocks formed in lakes and streams and ignimbrite deposits that erupted from ancient volcanoes approximately 9 to 3 million years ago, during the late Miocene to Pliocene epochs, underlie the Cappadocia region. The rocks of Cappadocia near Göreme eroded into hundreds of spectacular pillars and minaret-like forms. People of the villages at the heart of the Cappadocia Region carved out houses, churches and monasteries from the soft rocks of volcanic deposits. Thousands of years ago a group of ancient volcanoes, Mount Erciyes, Mount Hasan and Mount Melendiz, spewed out layer upon layer of thick tuff which blanketed the countryside for miles around. Over the centuries the wind and rain worked their magic on the soft rock, carving out spectacular gorges and leaving behind the dramatic pinnacles of rock - the 'fairy chimneys' - that have created the Cappadocian moonscape.
Land uses and economical activities:
Tourism.
Summary of Landscapes values and characteristics:

Erosion shaped the incredible landscape of the Göreme valley, but thousands of years ago humans took a cue from Mother Nature and began carving an incredible chamber and tunnel complex into the soft rock. Beginning in the fourth century A.D., an urbanized—but underground—cultural landscape was created here. Ancient volcanic eruptions blanketed this region with thick ash, which solidified into a soft rock—called tuff—tens of meters thick. Wind and water went to work on this plateau, leaving only its harder elements behind to form a fairy tale landscape of cones, pillars, pinnacles, mushrooms, and chimneys, which stretch as far as 130 feet (40 meters) into the sky. But human hands performed equally incredible works here. The rocky wonderland is honeycombed with a network of human-created caves, living quarters, places of worship, stables, and storehouses were all dug into the soft stone. In fact, tunnel complexes formed entire towns with as many as eight different stories hidden underground. Göreme was inhabited as early as the Hittite era, circa 1800 to 1200 B.C. and later sat uncomfortably on the boundary between rival empires, first the Greeks and Persians and later the Byzantine Greeks and a host of rivals. This precarious political position meant that residents needed hiding places—and found them by tunneling into the rock itself.

5.2. Cultural Heritage

A) Related to current constructions, buildings and art pieces in general

Architectonical elements /Sculptures:

There are so many fascinating things to see in Cappadocia, as the two large open-air museums and the best of the underground cities. Also there are also many small, all-but-forgotten rock-cut churches and monasteries, splendid hiking trails, several spectacular caravanserais and many dramatic rock formations well worth going out of your way to visit: -Goreme Open Air Museum: cave churches with frescoes. The Goreme Open-Air Museum resembles a vast monastic complex composed of scores of refectory monasteries placed side-by-side, each with its own fantastic church. It is only 1.5km from Goreme village center. It contains the finest of the rock-cut churches, with beautiful frescoes, presenting unique examples of rock hewn architecture and fresco technique. The Goreme Open Air Museum has been a member of UNESCO World Heritage List since 1984, and was one of the first two UNESCO sites in Turkey. There are eleven refectories within the Museum, with rock-cut churches tables and benches. Each is associated with a church. Most of the churches in Goreme Open Air Museum belong to the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries. The most important churches and chapels in the area are: the Nunnery, St. Barbara Church, Snake (Yilanli) Church, Dark Church (Karanlik Kilise), Carikli (Sandals) Church, Buckle (Tokali) Church. -Zelve Open Air Museum: The Zelve Open-Air Museum, which once housed one of the largest communities in the region is an amazing cave town, honeycombed with dwellings, religious and secular chambers. Here, the Christians and Muslims lived together in perfect harmony, until 1924. Then Christians had to leave the Valley because of the exchange of minorities between Greece and Turkey, and the Muslims were forced to evacuate the Valley in the 50’s when life became dangerous due to risk of erosion. They left the site to set up a modern village, a little further on, to which they gave the name Yeni Zelve (New Zelve). Now old Zelve is a ghost town and the erosion still continues. The three valleys in the Zelve open air museum offer a heaven for the rock climbers. These valleys, which also house the oldest examples of Cappadocian architecture and religious paintings. Main sites of the area are: Geyikli Kilise, Uzumlu Kilise (The Church with Grapes) and Balikli Kilise (The Church with Fishes). -Ihlara Valley: Near Mount Hasan and Mount Melendiz, it is believed that the valley housed more than four thousand dwellings and a hundred cave churches decorated with frescoes. Around eighty thousand people once lived in Ihlara Valley. Churches in the valley: Kokar Kilise (The Smelly Church), Purenli Seki Kilisesi (Church with the Terrace), Agacalti Kilise (Church under the Tree) and many others. -Chisar and Uchisar Castle: Uchisar is situated at the highest point in Cappadocia. The top of the Uchisar Castle, provides a magnificent panorama of the surrounding area with Mount Erciyes in the distance. Many rooms hollowed out into the rock are connected to each other with stairs, tunnels and passages. At the entrances of the rooms, there are millstone doors. There are also many other pigeon houses in Pigeon Valley (Guvercinlik Vadisi in Turkish) which connects Uchisar to Goreme. Most of these cave dwellings have been painted white to attract the birds and their valuable droppings. -Ortahisar: When entering the town, you will notice doors in the rock surfaces on both sides. These doors are the best example of the cool-air storages in Cappadocia. In these natural air-conditioned rooms, lemons and oranges from the Mediterranean region, apples from Nigde, local potatoes, quinces and onions are stored. Green lemons slowly turn yellow in these store-rooms. – Pasabag (Monks Valley): Highly remarkable earth pillars can be seen here, in the middle of a vineyard, hence the name of the place which means: the Pacha’s vineyard. Some of these cones split into smaller cones in their upper sections, in which stylites and hermits once hid. The hermitage of Simeon monks was also here. A chapel dedicated to St. Simeon (Simon), and a hermit’s shelter is built into one of the fairy chimneys with three heads. The entrance of the cell is decorated with antithetical crosses. The hermits of Cappadocia distanced themselves from the world by cutting into fairy chimneys rather than living on top of columns. They hollowed out the chimneys from bottom to top creating rooms at 10-15m high. -Devrent Valley: Devrent Valley is famous because its lunar landscape. The area reveals many different rock formations and is only a 10 minute drive from Goreme. The small fairy chimneys in the valley form a lunar landscape, or moonscape, by their strange look. The valley also has many animal shaped rocks. -Gulsehir: Gulsehir is situated on the southern bank of the Red River (Kizilirmak) and in ancient times it was called “Zoropassos”. Later, during the Roman Empire the town was named as Arapsun. Modern Turkey names the city as Gulsehir which means Rose City. The ottoman Grand Vezier Karavezir Mehmet Seyyid Pasha did the same thing in Gulsehir as Damat Ibrahim Pasha did in Nevsehir and built a kulliye in the town which had only 30 houses. This complex consisted of a mosque, a madrassa and a fountain. The main sites of this area are: Aciksaray (Open Palace), remarkable for its facades and the odd-looking formations, some resembling huge mushrooms, trees, even human faces., and St. Jean Church (Karsi Kilise). -Forgotten cave churches of Cappadocia: At the Cavusin old town, the church of St. John the Baptist rises on top of the hill. The church was built in the 5th century and it is the biggest cave church of Cappadocia even though it was divided into three rooms in 10th century against danger of collapsing. Other cave churches of interest are: the Cavusin (Nicephorus Phocas) Church, Uzumlu Church, Hacli Kilise (Church with the cross), etc.

Art pieces, artesany, furniture and other elements:

The town of Avanos, in Cappadocia, is set on the banks of the Kizilirmak, the Red River. Avanos is a mass of family run potteries. These famous potters make wonderful souvenirs and are available at a wide range of prices from simple ashtrays and mugs to ornate plates and chess sets.

In the case of gardens: original and current style:
It is not the case.
B) Related to ancient remains

  • Archaeological components:

    The underground cities in Cappadocia: -Kaymakli underground city: It is built under the hill known as the Citadel of Kaymakli and was opened to visitors in 1964. The people of Kaymakli (Enegup in Greek) village have constructed their houses around nearly one hundred tunnels of the underground city. The inhabitants of the region still use the most convenient places in the tunnels as cellars, storage areas and stables, which they access through their courtyards. The Kaymakli Underground City has low, narrow and sloping passages. While the underground city consists of 8 floors below ground, only 4 of them are open to the public today, in which the spaces are organized around ventilation shafts. The first floor of the underground city is the stable. The small size of this area suggests that there could be other stables in sections that have not yet been opened. The passage to the left of the stable contains a millstone door and leads into the church. To the right of the corridor are rooms hollowed out as living areas. The church on the 2nd floor has a single nave and two apses. In front of the apses is an altar, and on the sides are seating platforms. There are also some living areas on this floor. The most important areas of the underground city are on the 3rd floor. Besides numerous storage places, wineries and kitchen, the block of andesite with relief-texture found on this floor is very interesting. Recent research has proved that this stone was used as a melting pot for copper. The stone was not brought here from outside but was part of the andesite layer unearthened while hollowing. To be able to use it as a melting pot, 57 holes were carved on the surface of the stone. The copper ore, about 10 cm in length, would be put into one of those holes and would be hammered using a hard piece of rock. This technique has been known since the Prehistoric Periods. -The Derinkuyu underground city. It is located in the same named town Derinkuyu, which is situated 40km from Goreme (30 minute drive). There are about 600 outside doors to the city, hidden in the courtyards of surface dwellings. The underground city is approximately 85m deep. It contains all the usual rooms found in an underground city (stables, cellars, storage rooms, refectories, churches, wineries etc.) Apart from these, a large room with a barrel vaulted ceiling on the second floor was a missionary school, the rooms to the left being study rooms. From the 3rd and 4th floors onwards the descent is by way of vertical staircases which lead to a cruciform plan church on the lowest floor. The 55m deep ventilation shaft was also used as a well. Not every floor was provided with water wells up to the surface in order to protect the dwellers from poisoning during raids. Derinkuyu contains at least 15,000 ventilation ducts that provide fresh air deep within the underground city. The Derinkuyu Underground City was opened to visitors in 1965 but so far less than half of it can be visited. It is unlikely that the underground cities were ever intended for permanent dwelling, or even long stays, but they were clearly built to withstand attack and could support large numbers of people and their domestic animals, for extended periods of time. The urban organization was very complex, and there was probably always work in progress. The extensive networks of passages, tunnels, stepped pits and inclined corridors link family rooms and communal spaces where people would meet, work and worship. The cities were complete with wells, chimneys for air circulation, niches for oil lamps, stores, water tanks, stables and areas where the dead could be placed until such time as conditions on the surface would allow their proper disposal. Most importantly, carefully balanced moving stone doors, resembling mill stones, were devised to quickly block the corridors in the event of an attack.

  • Historical routes:

    Caravanserais (Kervansarays) of Cappadocia: Caravanserais have been used since the 10th century. Trade across Turkey in medieval Seljuk times was dependent on camel trains (kervan, anglicized as caravan), which stopped by night in inns known as kervansaray or caravanserai , literally ‘caravan palaces’. These buildings provided accommodation and other amenities for the merchants and stabling for their animals. Caravanseraies were first seen in Central Asia during the times of Caravans, Ghaznavids and the Great Seljuk State. They were building fortresses called “Ribat”. These buildings, first constructed as small buildings for military uses were later developed and changed into larger buildings and were used for both religious purposes and as inns for travelers. Especially during the times of Seljuk Sultans Kilicarslan II and Alaaddin Keykubat I, the construction of these buildings increased after the security of the trading roads was provided by the state. The loss of the trades would be met by the states, which is accepted to be the first insurance system. During that period, both domestic and foreign trades prospered. In this way, the Seljuks, who were already economically powerful, became politically strong, too. In caravanserais, foreign as well as native traders, would be put up for three days. Their shoes would be repaired or the poor would be given new shoes. The ill would be treated and animals would be tended and, if needed horses would be shoed. For their religious practices, they would use the “Kosk Mescid”, a small mosque, in the center of the courtyard. The “Kosk Mescid”, usually located in the centre of the courtyard, was the most important part of the caravanserais. These mosques were normally built on an arched base. The courtyards are normally surrounded with bedrooms, depots, bath house and bathrooms. “Mangals” (braziers) or “tandirs” (oven in the ground) were used to heat the places whereas candles and lamps were used for light. All services were provided by the people working in caravanserais, e.g., doctor, imam (prayer leader), depot officer, veterinarian, messenger, blacksmith, and cook. Stones cut from the volcanic rock were used in the construction of the caravanserais in the region of Cappadocia. For defense purposes, their walls were constructed like castle walls. Some of the best examples of Seljuk stonemasonry can be seen at the entrances, called “Tac Kapi”. Although dragon, lion motifs and floral designs most frequently used, in Cappadocia geometrical designs were generally preferred. The doors were made of iron. Caravanserais were built along roads running from Antalya – Konya – Kayseri to the land of Turkomans passing through Erzurum and Tabriz and from the Black Sea region to Iraq via Amasya – Tokat – Sivas – Malatya – Diyarbakir at a distance of 30-40km, a one day camel trek. It is possible to see some of the most beautiful examples of caravanserais in the region of Cappadocia, especially between Aksaray and Kayseri, since it is an intersection, east to west and south to north, Sultanhani in Aksaray, Agzikarahan in Aksaray and Sarihan in Avanos. The kervansarays of Cappadocia in central Turkey were built of hewn volcanic stone, and their walls were thick and high so that they would be safe from raids by robbers. Decoration was concentrated on the great portals which display the finest examples of Seljuk stone carving. The richly carved portal of Aksaray Sultanhani which projects from the walls, and the towers at each corner lend the building a monumental aspect. The portal is made of marble of several colors and leads into the courtyard, in the centre of which is a pavilion mosque. Along the right-hand side of the courtyard is a decoratedcolonnade and to the left storage rooms and chambers. To the north is an area where both animals and people were accommodated. The next caravanserai (kervansaray) located on this route, 15 km outside Aksaray on the Nevsehir road, is Agzikarahan (Black Mouth), which bears the same name as the village where it is situated. It is alternatively known as Hoca Mesud Kervansaray, after its founder. The first of its two inscriptions tell us that its construction was commenced in 1231 by a wealthy merchant named Hoca Mesud bin Abdullah and completed in 1239. The hall was built during this time by Alaaddin Keykubat I and the courtyard by his son Giyaseddin Keyhusrev II (1237-1246). With its great portals, pavilion mosque, towers and other architectural features, this caravanserai is reminiscent of the castle-like royal hans (Sultanhani). The pavilion mosque is raised upon a four arched sub-structure and stands in the middle of the courtyard, which is surrounded by colonnades and closed rooms. The carved decoration of Agzikarahan is notable for the absence of the human figures, animals and floral motifs typical of the period. The hamam or bath house is in the rectangular building standing apart to the south. Agzikarahan is followed by Tepesidelik Han (also known as Oresin Han) 17 km away. This caravanserai has a covered courtyard and since the inscription is missing, it is not known exactly when it was built or by whom. Researchers agree however, that it probably dates from the third quarter of the 13th century. The portal and part of the dome are in ruins, but the spaces roofed by cradle vaults and supported by symmetrically placed groups of three columns around the pendentive dome are striking in appearance. A further 12 km on is Alayhan, one of the first caravanserais built by sultans, but now divided in two by the present Aksaray-Nevsehir road. This building may be what in written sources is referred to as the Kilicarslan II Kervansaray. Royal caravanserais generally consisted of one open and one covered section. Unfortunately the open section of this kervansaray has been completely destroyed, leaving only part of the covered section consisting of three bays roofed by seven vaults. The portal is decorated with geometric motifs and seven rows of mukarnas (stalactite) carving, and features a carved lion with a single head and double body. We next come to Sarihan Caravanserai in the province of Nevsehir on the road between to Kayseri. Sarihan (also spelled as Saruhan, meaning Yellow Caravanserai) covers an area of 2000 square meters and was built during the reign of Izzettin Keykavus II (1249-1254), perhaps by him, in 1249. It is constructed of smoothly hewn yellow, pink and beige stone. Two contrasting colors of stone are used to decorative effect on the arches of the main outer portal and inner portal. Restoration of this caravanserai, parts of which were in ruins, was completed in 1991. This was the last caravanserai to be built by the Seljuk sultans. Today, the whirling dervishes ceremonie is performed nightly at the Sarihan Caravanserai. Another important caravanserai is Kayseri Sultanhani in the village of Tuzhisar 45 km from Kayseri on the Sivas Road. The inscription on its hall portal tells us that it was built between 1232 and 1236 by Alaaddin Keykubat I. This caravanserai covers an area of 3900 square meters and its plan is similar to that of Aksaray Sultanhani. The portal in the north wall is flanked by semicircular towers with square bases. Although this partially ruined portal is typical of classical Seljuk portals, the towers enhance its grandeur. A hall with high arches leads into the square courtyard, in the centre of which is a pavilion mosque raised on arches. On the northwest side of the courtyard is a domed hamam in five sections which is entered via a door at the northwest corner of the arcade to the right. This caravanserai was restored in 1951. The last caravanserai in Cappadocia area is Karatayhan built by Celaleddin Karatay on the old Kayseri-Malatya road, part of the main trade route into Syria. Construction commenced during the reign of Alaaddin Keykubat and was completed during that of his son Giyaseddin Keyhusrev in 1240/1241. The inscription opens with the words, ‘This building belongs to God, who is One, Eternal, and Everlasting’. Celaleddin Karatay came from Kayseri to see the finished building, and was so overwhelmed by its magnificence that he sped away again, afraid that he would be carried away by pride in his own accomplishment. The endowment deed of Karatayhan tells us that it was built to serve both commercial and social functions. The ornately carved portal which dominates the south wall measures 46 by 80 meters, and projects both beyond and above the wall. The decoration includes floriate and figurative as well as geometric motifs, which distinguishes it from other caravanserais. An eyvan (open-fronted vaulted hall) with pointed vault leads from the portal into the courtyard. Along the eastern side of the courtyard is a series of long narrow chambers with pointed vaults opening directly onto the courtyard, while an arcade runs down the western side. Like the towns and villages through which the trade roads passed, the vicinity of the caravanserai once turned into small commercial centers. This was true of Karatayhan, which in the 13th century stood at a junction of roads. When Europeans found new ways to China, the Silk Road started to lose importance and of course the caravanserais as well. After the 15th and 16th centuries, most of the caravanserais were never used again.

  • Traces in the environment of human activity: The particular landscape of Cappadocia is in part created by the human intervention on the natural environment.
  • Traditional productive, transportation or storage apparatus persistence: In Ortahisar there are doors in the rock surfaces on both sides. These doors are the best example of the cool-air storages in Cappadocia. In these natural air-conditioned rooms, lemons and oranges from the Mediterranean region, apples from Nigde, local potatoes, quinces and onions are stored. Green lemons slowly turn yellow in these store-rooms. Also farmers used the cave pigeon houses of Chisar to collect the droppings of pigeons which is an excellent natural fertilizer for the orchards and vineyards.
C) Related to intangible, social and spiritual values

  • Population, ethnic groups: Göreme: around 2,500 people.
  • Languages and dialects: Turkish
  • Lifestyle, believing, cults, traditional rites: Göreme became a religious refuge during the early days of Christianity. By the fourth century Christians fleeing Rome’s persecution had arrived in some numbers and established monastic communities here. In another hand, Hacibektas is a center of Bektasi sect of Islam.

5.3. Quality

Condition: environmental/ cultural heritage degradation:
The primary threats to this World Heritage site come from the forces that created it in the first place. Erosion is returning some human endeavors to a more natural state, and extensive preservation efforts are meant to ensure that the wonders of Cappadocia and Göreme survive for another millennium. With increased tourist trade, however, humans have brought modern development and damage or destruction to some of the ancient sites they once created.
Perspectives/Views/ Points of interest/Setting:

-Goreme Open-Air Museum. -Zelve Open-Air Museum. -Chisar and Uchisar Castle. -Kaymakli Underground City. -Derinkuyu Underground City. -Ihlara Valley. -Ortahisar. -Avanos. -Pasabag. -Devrent. -Gulsehir. -Forgotten Cave Churches. -Caravanserais.

6. VALUES

Tangible

  • Aesthetic
  • Archaeological
  • Architectonical
  • Ethnological
  • Living heritage
  • Maintenance quality
The main tangible values of "Cappadocia Cultural Landscape" are: -Aesthetic: Thousands of years ago a group of ancient volcanoes, Mount Erciyes, Mount Hasan and Mount Melendiz, spewed out layer upon layer of thick tuff which blanketed the countryside for miles around. Over the centuries the wind and rain worked their magic on the soft rock, carving out spectacular gorges and leaving behind the dramatic pinnacles of rock - the 'fairy chimneys' - that have created the Cappadocian moonscape. -Archaeological/ Architectonical/Maintenance quality: There are so many fascinating things to see in Cappadocia, as the two large open-air museums and the best of the underground cities. Also there are also many small, all-but-forgotten rock-cut churches and monasteries, splendid hiking trails, several spectacular caravanserais and many dramatic rock formations well worth going out of your way to visit. The Goreme Open-Air Museum resembles a vast monastic complex composed of scores of refectory monasteries placed side-by-side, each with its own fantastic church.It contains the finest of the rock-cut churches, with beautiful frescoes, presenting unique examples of rock hewn architecture and fresco technique. The Goreme Open Air Museum has been a member of UNESCO World. The three valleys in the Zelve Open Air-Museum house the oldest examples of Cappadocian architecture and religious paintings. There are several homes and pigeon houses carved straight into the rock formations in the Cappadocian region. For more detail, see points 5.2.1 and 5.2.8. -Ethnological/ Living Heritage: People of the villages at the heart of the Cappadocia Region carved out houses, churches and monasteries from the soft rocks of volcanic deposits. The monks excavated extensive dwellings and monasteries and created Byzantine frescoes paintings in cave chapels beginning in the seventh century, which endure in well-preserved isolation to this day. -Geological: The eroded plateau of the Göreme valley is a spectacular example of the effects of differential erosion of the volcanic tuff sediments by wind and water. Typical features are pillars, columns, towers, obelisks and needles that reach heights of 40 m. The major remnant of erosion, Akdağ (1,325 m), is the dominant feature in the valley. The nearby Erciyas volcano is still active with occasional minor eruptions. Its outstanding example represents the Earth's evolutionary history. Within these rock formations people have excavated a network of caves which served as refuges, residences, storage and places of worship dating from the 4th century. The surrounding landscape is agricultural with a number of small scattered rural villages.

Intangible

  • Historical
  • Religious
The main intangible values of "Cappadocia Cultural Landscape" are: -Historical: The first period of settlement in Göreme goes back to the Roman period. The Yusuf Koç, Ortahane, Durmus Kadir and Bezirhane churches in Göreme, and houses and churches carved into rocks in the Uzundere, Bağıldere and Zemi Valleys all illustrate history and can be seen today. The Göreme Open Air Museum is the most visited site of the monastic communities in -Religious: It is believed that the first signs of monastic activity in Cappadocia date back to the 4th century at which time, acting on the instructions of Basil the Great, Bishop of Caesarea (Kayseri), small anchoritic communities began inhabiting cells dug into the rock. Later on, in order to resist Arab forays they began banding together into troglodyte villages or subterranean towns such as Kaymaklı or Derinkuyu which served as places of refugeThe location of Göreme was first settled back in the Roman period. Christianity was then the prevailing religion in the region, which is evident from many rock churches that can still be seen today. In another hand, Hacibektas is a center of Bektasi sect of Islam.
Authenticity:
In a spectacular landscape, entirely sculpted by erosion, the Göreme valley and its surroundings contain rock-hewn sanctuaries that provide unique evidence of Byzantine art in the post-Iconoclastic period. Dwellings, troglodyte villages and underground towns – the remains of a traditional human habitat dating back to the 4th century – can also be seen there.
Universality:
In an extraordinary meeting of nature's artistic splendor and humankind's resourcefulness, Cappadocia is one of those rare places that must be experienced at least once in a lifetime. With soaring rock formations, uniquely-rippled landscapes, splendid walking trails, mysterious underground cities and rock-cut churches, Cappadocia is the must-see destination in Turkey. Med-O-Med describes the Universality of "Cappadocia Cultural Landscape" according to the UNESCO criteria (i, iii, v, vii) i) The architecture of Cappadocia represents a masterpiece of human creative genius. iii) Cappadocia bears an unique testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared. v) The region is an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement and human interaction with the environment. vii) Cappadocia contains superlative natural phenomena and areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance.
Values linked to the Islamic culture and civilisation:
Hacibektas is a center of Bektasi sect of Islam.

7. ENCLOSURES

Historical and graphical data (drawings, paintings, engravings, photographs, literary items…):

Cappadocia Cultural Landscape is one of all of the cultural landscapes of Turkey which are included in The Cultural Landscape inventory runned by Med-O-Med.

Bibliography:

http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/357 http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/357/video http://whc.unesco.org/en/news/345 http://whc.unesco.org/venice2002 http://www.ourplaceworldheritage.com/custom.cfm?action=WHsite&whsiteid=357 http://www.kulturturizm.gov.tr/?_Dil=1 http://www.protectedplanet.net/sites/478637 http://travel.nationalgeographic.com/travel/world-heritage/cappadocia/ http://www.turquia.net/capadocia http://www.goreme.com -UNESCO. (2001). Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage. World Heritage Committee. 25 session. Helsinki, Finland. -UNESCO. (2002). Cultural Landscapes: the Challenges of Conservation. Associated Workshops, World Heritage. Ferrara , Italy.

Practical Information:
Curiosities: The area was the set of several movie activity due to its topography. Turkish model and actress Azra Akin took part in a commercial for a chewing gum called First Ice. The commercial shows some of the area's features. The 1983 Italian/French/Turkish film Yor, the Hunter from the Future was also filmed in Cappadocia. In the tabletop role-playing game Vampire: The Masquerade, Cappadocian is an extinct clan of vampires based around Mount Erciyes. In Assassin's Creed: Revelations, Cappadocia is an underground city in Turkey which is dominated by Templars. The region was used for the 1989 science fiction film Slipstream to depict a cult of wind worshippers. In 2010 and early 2011, the film Ghost Rider: Spirit of Vengeance also filmed in the Cappadocia region. Pier Paolo Pasolini's Medea, based on the plot of Euripides' Medea, was filmed in Göreme Open Air Museum's early Christian churches.

Compiler Data: Sara Martínez Frías.