The Spiritual Garden


Water and fragrances in Islamic gardens, getting close to the spiritual

IV Hispanic-Arabic Gardening Conference. Almeria 17th and 18th October 2014.

The Arabic words Hadiqah, riyad, janna, raudah refer to the garden in its classical sense, with different nuances. The words bustan, munia, ruzafa, buhaira, ‘ars refer to the large agricultural or leisure estates generally located on the periphery of towns. Agdal refers to cultivated gardens that yield crops. In addition there are other words to describe places where cultivation takes place: garsia, dalia, and others.

Full Text: The Spiritual Garden

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