Palestine is located on the east side of the Mediterranean Sea at latitudes 29 and 33 and longitudes 35 and 39. Its total surface area is estimated at 516,000 ha, of which 150,000 ha in the West Bank and 16,000 in the Gaza Strip are currently being cultivated.
There are 5 main relief and climate regions in Palestine:
- Jordan Valley Region, stretching in the south from the western bank of the river to the far north of the Dead Sea over about 70 km. The altitude varies between 200-300 m below sea level to about 100 (north) – 200 m (south) above sea level. The climate is sub-tropical and annual rainfall is between 20 and 100 mm.
- Eastern hills, stretching along the eastern part of the West Bank, to the east of Jenin. The altitude varies between 800 m above sea level to 150 m below. The climate is semi-dry, with low annual rainfall (200-400 mm).
- Central Highlands. This is the largest part of the West Bank, stretching over 120 km and including Jenin (north) and Hebron (south). It is mountainous, with some parts reaching over 1,000 m above sea level. Average annual rainfall is 400 – 700 mm in the mountains.
- Coastal Region, covering the districts of Jenin and Tulkarem. This region is about 60 km long and 1-3 km wide and the altitude is 100-300 m above sea level. Annual average rainfall is about 600 mm.
- Gaza Strip, covering 365 square kilometres. This includes different soil types and sand dunes and lies along the coast in the western part of the territory. A considerable proportion of this area has been reclaimed for the cultivation of citrus fruits and vegetables. It is a productive area used mainly for fruits, field crops and vegetables. Average annual rainfall is about 300 mm.